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124 Cards in this Set

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20th Amendment- Year?
states which day the President takes office (January 20th)
It also lays out the process if the president-elect dies before his inauguration.
What day does the President take office?
January 20th
Stage 4: Social and Political Equality (1951-1980)
Government protects and promotes equality. By giving all citizens the chance to participate in the regulated capitalist system. Problems: some claim that this leads to reverse discrimination. Policy Example: Brown vs. board of Education "Separate but equal is inherently unequal."
Lame Duck
an elected official who has not been reelected, but still holds office. Problem: famously illustrated in Marbury v. Madison case, where lame-duck appointments by out-going President John adams set the stage for a landmark Supreme Court decision with his serious of late-night, last-minute appointments. 20th amendment cleared up this problem to a degree, by shortening the lame duck period.
21st Amendment- year?
repeals the 18th amendment legalizing the consumption of alcohol
21st Amendment
Prohibition era did have a certain sense of lawlessness; the very fact that consumption was not eliminated is testimony to that. Enforcement was spotty, with stills and speakeasies popping up in every population center. Over-zealous police and federal agents violated civil rights when searching for and destroying the paraphernalia of alcohol.
22nd Amendment
Washington had been asked to run for a third term in 1796, but he made it quite clear that he had no intention of doing so; that an orderly transition of power was needed to set the const. in stone. And so it was for almost 150 years. After a fourth term presidency by FDR Congress chose to enforce Washington's self-imposed policy of a maximum of 2 terms as president.
22nd Amendment- Year?
limits the presidency to 2 terms
23rd Amendment
When first established, it was a town of 5000, and it was assumed that it would be the center of government, and not a pop. center. By 1960, when 760,000 people lived in Washington, DC, it seemed on that people from a dozen states, with lower populations, had more voting rights that residents of the District. As citizens, they were required to pay taxes and to serve in the military, but a vote in the Presidential election was available only to the states.
23rd Amendment- Year?
It gives Washington DC the same number of electors as if it were a state. It does not make W.DC a state; it just confers upon its citizens the number of electors that it would have if it were a state. It also did not provide full representation in Congress for the District.
24th Amendment
With most methods for keeping the black vote to a minimum declared unconstitutional, several Southern states found an answer- the poll tax. The poll tax has a long history, and was often used in Europe to raise funds. With a poll tax, in order to vote, a certain tax must be paid. The tax is the same for all, which allowed the general more affluent white population access to the polls within a min. of pain, while the generally poorer black pop. would have trouble justifying trading food on the table for a vote in the ballot box.
24th Amendment- Year?
Abolished the poll tax
25th Amendment
Promoted in part by the experience of having Garfield and Wilson incapacitated in office for a significant time. Garfield lived for 80 days after he was shot in 1881. Wilson never fully recovered from the stroke that he suffered in Sept. 1919, yet he remained in office until March 1921 with his wife Edith Wilson, performing some of his duties. Pres. Eisenhower's heart attack in 1955 incapacitated him for four days and curtailed his workload for 16 weeks and the Eisenhower experience raised again the question for how to deal with an incapacitated president. The line of succession for the president was not only clarified, but also what was to be done in the case of presidential disability.
25th Amendment- Year?
- covers transfers of power during surgeries or in the case of a permanent disability
- outlines procedure for determining presidential incapacitation if there is a disagreement within the executive branch
- this amendment raises many questions
26th Amendment
The US was in the throes of the Vietnam War and protests were underway throughout the nation. Draftees into the armed services were any male over the age of 18. There was a seeming dichotomy, however: these young men were allowed, even forced, to fight and die for their country, but they were unable to vote.
26th Amendment- Year?
setting a national voting age, in both state and national elections, to 18
27th Amendment
Originally proposed as an article in the original Bill of Rights. It did not pass the required # of states w/ the articles we now know as the first 10 am. It sat, unratified and with no expiration date, in const. limbo, for more than 80 years when Ohio ratified it to protest a congressional pay hike; no other states followed Ohio's lead, however. Again it was languished, for more than 100 years. Wyoming ratified the am. but there was again, no follow-up by the remaining states. Then, Gregory Watson, an aide to a Texas legislator, took up the proposed am.'s clause.
What is the number 1 potential new amendment on Brother Rose's wish list?
balanced budget amendment
also a rainy day fund
27th Amendment- Year?
Prevents laws affecting Congressional salary from taking effect until the beginning of the next session of Congress.
President Eisenhower's Farewell Address
January 17, 1961- Nationally Televised
"We must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the MILITARY-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX. the potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted."
Iron Triangle
is a closed, mutually beneficial relationship, between a gov. agency, a special interest lobby org., and the congressional committees or subcommittees that have jurisdiction over a particular area of gov. policy. When these groups of movers and shakers hang together, they are able to dominate the decisions that are made in a policy area.
What is an example of an Iron Triangle?
Military Industrial Complex
What was Eisenhower warning us against?
A certain type of Iron Triangle. His advice is salient not only because he was pres. but b/c of his successful military career. IN the Power Elite (1965), C. Wright Mills, called this perspective, military metaphysics. It is a situation where in, "the cast of mind that defines international reality as basically military." In this scenario there is not lasting peace, only a transition period or a "prelude to war or an interlude between wars." In a militaristic society, elites have something to GAIN. his typically reflects itself in terms of power, influence, money, prestige, etc.
How was the Great Depression a Global Depression?
- the global economy suffered major setbacks
- it was also a factor in the depression that happened in the US
- world trade had rapidly declined in the 1920's
- foreign customers were unable to buy American goods and this left American industries with huge surpluses of goods
or Shanty towns that were built by the homeless. Named because of the widespread blame on President Hoover for the depression
Dust Bowl
- The dust storms in the 1930's caused extensive damage to farm lands in the Midwest.
- The farming methods of the time loosened natural deep rooted grasses that had kept the soil in place.
- People engaged in a daily struggle to feed themselves and their children.
- People would wait in these for bowls of soup and pieces of bread given out by charitable organizations.
Other impacts of the Depression
Family life- Economic hardship took a toll on families, during the depression the marriage rate fell dramatically because young people put off getting married.
Psychological effects- More than 20,000 Americans committed suicide in 1932 a 28 percent increase from the previous year.
There began to be declining sense of self worth and many were consumed with guilt by their inability to provide for their families.
FDR's domestic program was known as what?
the New Deal (1933-1939)
100 Days- Honeymoon Period
Congress passed 15 measures that were at the heart of the new deal. Immediately after taking office in March, he called a joint session of Congress and then put his plan in place.
Fireside Chats
30 radio addresses spread out over his presidency (FDR) to have maximum impact
Roosevelt's New Deal program aimed at 3 R's, what were they?
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Short-range goals were relief and immediate recovery, and long-range goals were permanent recovery and reform of current abuses.
The First New Deal (1933-34)
initiatives proposed by a wide number of groups, experimentation with several different, sometimes contradictory, programs. Includes public works programs and more CONSERVATIVE approach than the second new deal.
The Second New Deal (1935-38)
increasingly approach emphasized long term reform, with more public works programs, a social security plan, and wage and hour improvements for laborers
Tennessee Valley Authority- Year?
1933- 1st New Deal
Constructed dams and power plants to improve social and economic welfare in the region
Public Works Administration- Year?
1933- 1st New Deal
Constructed roads, public buildings; and other projects designed to increase employment and business activity
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation- Year?
1933- 1st New Deal
Insured individual bank deposits up to 5000 dollars
Securities and Exchange Commission- Year?
1934- 1st New Deal
Regulated the securities market
Social Security Act- Year?
1935- 2nd New Deal
Provided unemployment benefits, pensions for the elderly, and survivors insurance
West Coast Hotel v. Parish- Year?
1937- The court upheld a Washington State min. wage law. This case is famous b/c conservative Justice Owens appeared to switch his decision. The phrase, "the switch in time that saved nine," came out of this case. FDR had hatched up a plan to pack the SC w/ 6 additional justices b/c his New Deal legislation was being struck down. The central & most controversial provision of the bill would have granted the Pres. power to appoint an additional Justice to the US SC, up to a max of 6, for every sitting member over the age of 70 years and 6 months.
Aggregate Demand
the total demand for final goods and services in the economy at a given time and price level- determined economic activity
Occurred as individuals moved from the inner city to the suburbs. American prosperity was at a high point. However, prosperity was not shared by all Americans.
Stage 4
Social and Political Equality (1951-1980)
The Other America
- large numbers of American obviously not prospering
- children of the poor often never rise above poverty in adulthood: poverty fixed condition (caste not class)
- "Culture of poverty": lost hope in ever rising; fatalism; to be poor is to be an 'internal alien'
- IDEOLOGICAL foundation of Great Society
Who wrote The Other America?
Michael Harrington
Montgomery Bus Boycott - Year?
1955- blacks in Montgomery Alabama boycotted the city bus system until they could be seated anywhere on the bus. The movement came about in result of Rosa Parks being thrown in jail for refusing to give up her seat on the bus.
The basic plan of the sit-ins was that a group of students would go to a lunch counter and ask to be served. If they were, they'd move on to the next lunch counter. If not, they would not move until they had been served.
Freedom Rides
Interracial groups would board busses destined for the South. The whites would sit in the back and the blacks in the front. At rest stops, the whites would go into blacks-only areas and vice versa.
The March on Washington
with the proposal of the civil rights bill 250,000 ppl from around the nation, arriving on thirty special trains and 2,000 chartered buses, marched to Washington in Aug 1963
Martin Luther King Jr.
- baptist minister, led the Montgomery Bus Boycott
- helped fund the Southern Christian Leadership conference
- his efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington
- dAssassinated March 29, 1968 while standing on the balcony of his motel room
- delivered "I have a dream' speech
_____ had originally voted against Eisenhower's 1957 _______ _______ _________.
Civil Rights Act
1957 Civil Rights Act
This was the first civil rights law passed through Congress since Reconstruction. It set up a Civil Rights Commission which was charged with gathering information on access to voting. It also gave the attorney general power to investigate and prosecute voter suppression.
JFK and Civil Rights
- During his 1960 presidential campaign Kennedy was not clear how he stood on civil rights.
- Once in office Kennedy made no initial efforts to press for a civil rights act.
- In 1963 JFK proposed the Civil Rights Act
Lyndon Johnson's idea
Great Society
Great Society
President Johnson's Domestic Program that attempted to help the poor and underprivileged in society.
2 main goals: elimination of poverty and racial injustice
What was the Great Society a continuation of?
The New Deal
Many of the Great Society programs were carried over from ________ New Frontier.
What contributed to the success of the Great Society?
Kennedy's Assassination, Johnson's political skill, national economic growth, and a unified goverment
What did President Johnson announce in his inaugural address in 1964?
War on Poverty.
This would be the backbone of his Great Society.
Food Stamp Act of 1964
Authorized a food stamp program to permit low income households to receive 'a greater share of the Nation's food abundance.' The original program cost $75 million dollars and helped 350,000 individuals.
Social Security Amendments of 1965
1. Medicare
2. Medicade
which provides low-cost hospitalization and medical insurance for the nation's elderly. Individuals over 65.
a health insurance program established for low-income persons under age 65 and persons over that age who have exhausted their Medicare benefits.
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
Job Corps: provided enabling skills for young men and women
Head Start: program of 4 and 5 year old children from disadvantaged families that gave them a chance to start school on an event basis with other youngsters
VISTA: Envisioned as a domestic peace corps program, it stands for volunteers in service in America
The Great Society
How was LBJ able to move 11 million citizens out of poverty?
1. Food Stamp Act
2. Social Security Amendments
3. Economic Opportunity Act
Civil Rights Act- 1964
- banned all discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in any setting
- authorized the US Attorney General to aid in ind. in filing suit against those who did deny that ind. the rights prescribed to them to this act.
- desegregated schools
- any gov. agency engaged in unlawful discrimination would lose its funding
- unlawful refuse employment based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
Voting Rights Act- 1965
- individuals could not be refused the right to vote by the use of literacy tests
- Federal examiners would be used to assist qualified voters to register and to vote and federal observers could monitor the activities in a jurisdiction's polling place. Targeted states that had less than 50% of its voting pop. participating in the pres. elections
Clean Air Act (1963)
Water Quality Act (1965)
Pres. Johnson was the 1st Pres. to sign acts concerning this. Established gov. authority and responsibility to act forcefully against air and water pollution. Provided money for research on pollution, set standards for air and water quality, and vehicle inspections, emissions, pollutions, and fuel additives and alternatives.
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (1967)
So that basically everyone can have free education access to what is going on.
What were the lasting impacts of the Great Society?
- successful in getting a lot of people out of poverty
- we have these programs now, medicare-medicade-food stamp programs. where we are at now, how we are going to continue to pay for it
- civil rights, voting rights act have done wonderous things in the country
What did the 3 Trimester Rule have to do with?
Roe v. Wade 1973
The 3 trimester rule in Roe v. Wade (1973)
1. Trimester of Pregnancy 1-3 months
Abortion is legal, left to doctor and patient.
2. Trimester of Pregnancy 4-6 months
"Balancing test" - Must balance the circumstances with interests of the fetus becoming person. Left to the states to decide.
3. Trimester of Pregnancy 6-9 months
Abortion is illegal, except if the mother's life is in danger.
Because of the ______________ a woman may terminate her pregnancy by abortion in the first trimester.
right to privacy
What was the impact of Watergate on the country?
- caused people to distrust gov. even more
- caused people to dislike politicians even more
- hurt people because of having a president doing all of these things
All the illegal and nasty things Nixon did as president. Refers to the Watergate hotel. Democrats had an election there, election coming up. Nixon sent some ppl to tap the phones so that they could hear their strategies. He was wiretapping so many other ppl, didn't pay his taxes like he should have.
Stage 5
Description: there is some roll-back of past programs involving social regulation and equality.
Good arise? Cutting gov. and allowing market to flourish while maintain some social safety net.
Policy Ex: Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
Welfare State
concept of gov. in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.
The election of Ronald Reagan marked the end of the ___ stage of political philosophy. Reagan sought an end to what he and others termed the ________ ________.
welfare state
Reagan attempted to roll back much of FDR's _____________ and Lyndon Johnson's _________ programs
New Deal
Great Society
Reinventing Government (1993)
book written by Osborne and Gaebler was a national bestseller that was influential during this time period. It was the academic justification the Clinton Administration used in pushing forward the National Performance Review- looked at ways to make gov. more effective and efficient.
Osborne and Gaebler stressed principles such as:
1. Competitive gov- especially in terms of service delivery
2. Community owned gov- that empowers cit. to get involved in finding solutions to prob.
3. Enterprising gov- we should look at ways not just to spend money but to make it
4. Results driven gov- how do we measure our performance and improve it?
5. Anticipatory gov- how do we prevent future problems rather than always reacting to the problems?
Contract With America
This contract sought fundamental deregulation and cut-backs in the size of the American Government.
Contract With America included
balancing the federal budget, tax cuts, social security reform, tort reform, welfare reform
Entitlement Program
a guarantee of access to benefits based on established rights or by regulation
Presentment Clause
You have to present laws to congress and the president.
What are the 4 main challenges that Brother Rose said we will face in the near future?
1. Presidential Power Expansion
2. Financial Recklessness
3. The Gap between Rich and Poor, Middle Class Prosperity
4. America's Place in the World
Geneva Conventions and Torture
President Bush acted as
lawmaker in suspending the treaty, which according to the Const. is "the supreme law of the land."
executive in carrying out the policy by interrogating prisoners with harsh interrogation practices
judge by keeping the proceeding secret and asserting that any appeal could only be to him and that other courts had no jurisdiction to appeal.
Military Tribunals
President Bush acted as
lawmaker in creating the commissions himself, not in accord with enacted laws
executive in detaining suspects in prison
judge in conducting trials, imposing sentences, and serving as the final appeal
Denying habeas corpus to detainees
President bush acted as
lawmaker in suspending habeas corpus, which authority the Const. gives to Congress.
executive in imprisoning detainees and not allowing them to appeal for writs of habeas corpus and denying them counsel (until forced by the SC)
judge in asserting that the executive branch determinations of detainee status were final and that appeals could only be heard by the executive branch
NSA warrantless wiretapping
President Bush acted as
LAWMAKER by determining he could ignore the regularly enacted law and impose his own rules in order to conduct surveillance in the United States.
EXECUTIVE in ordering the NSA to carry out his policies.
JUDGE by arguing that he had an inherent right as president to do it in secret and avoid obtaining the necessary warrants.
listening in on phones, conversations, etc.
Signing Statements
President Bush was undermining the separation of powers and the rule of law that he claimed impinged on his own prerogatives and refusing to accept the legitimacy of either the Congress or the courts to limit his authority
Who is to blame for presidential power expansion?
1. The Public
2. Congress
3. The Presidents Themselves
4. The Supreme Court
5. Scholars
Why is presidential power expansion a problem?
if we have one person running our country, we are going away from our original constitution. it is too much power for one man. checks and balances, representation, wise decision making, rights and liberties, democracy
Fiscal Cliff
We are the sheep that is falling off of the cliff. End of Bush tax cuts, 2% payroll tax break, automatic spending cuts negotiated last year to raise debt ceiling and we are coming up on another debt ceiling
What is our current national debt?
16 trillion
What was the deficit in 2011?
1.3 trillion
Income inequality is the _______________________
income gap between rich and poor
Bowling Alone
Book by Robert Putman, 2000
Civic Engagement
citizen participation in community afairs
How did Brother Rose measure civic engagement in Idaho Falls?
Sent out 1000 survey's to citizens in Idaho. Got about 300 back. In his study he looked at 8 categories of civic engagement: religious, political, educational, community, volunteerism and philanthropy, cultural, musical, and artistic participation, recreation, and informal.
Social Capital
The value that we get out of belonging to social networks
1. Public Ties (PTA) vs. Private Ties (Disc Golf Club)
2. Formal (org.) vs. Informal (picking up basketball)
3. Bridging (ties that cut across race, class, gender) vs. Bonding (links similar ppl together)
4. Strong Ties (a close knit group of friends) vs. Weak Ties (a passing acquaintance)
Civic engagement makes better citizens.
This is the idea of developmental democracy. We are more valuable over time as citizens.
Civic engagement improves civic knowledge.
People that get involved are smarter about the issues.
Civic engagement brings balance to our democracy.
Involved citizens offset the negative impacts of pluralism.
Civic engagement makes gov. more effective and efficient.
Input of citizens to solve problems. Ex. Neighborhood Watch Association
Civic engagement reinforces norms of reciprocity and trust.
Societies that rely on trust and reciprocity are more efficient. Ex. People who volunteer more are likely to trust others.
Social capital makes communities safer and more productive.
Criminologists have studied this for years. Social capital plays a positive role in preventing crime.
Social capital leads to economic development.
Ex. jewish diamond merchants in NYC. Based on trust and close knit ties.
Social capital improves education.
When parents and volunteers participate, kids to better in school.
Social capital leads to improved health and happiness.
Ex. Happiness Index, lower infant mortality, lower suicide, etc.
Social capital helps organizations flourish.
Ex. better knowledge sharing, lower turnover, lower transaction costs.
(top of hierarchy) activities include holding public office, running for office, soliciting political fund, attending a caucus or strategy meeting, becoming an active party member or contributing time to a political campaign
(bottom of hierarchy) activities include voting, participating, in a political discussion, attempting to sway the vote of another individual, wearing a button, or putting a sticker on a car.
they are not involved in the political process at all
Technology and Mass Media
Putnam finds this
1958: One Program: family watches together, talks about it, etc. You are connecting
2012: Endless Programs: average 3 tvs in homes, tablets, phones, laptops, etc.
The Point: we spend time doing this instead of other better things like getting involved with the community
What are the 4 distinctions that Putnam made about social capital?
1. Public Ties (PTA) vs. Private Ties (Disc Golf Club)
2. Formal (org.) vs. Informal (picking up basketball)
3. Bridging (ties that cut across race, class, gender) vs. Bonding (links similar ppl together)
4. Strong Ties (a close knit group of friends) vs. Weak Ties (a passing acquaintance)
Reasons for Declining Civic Engagement
Mobility (time we move from different communities, commuting to and from work) and Sprawl (living far from work, errands)
According to the 2011 US Census, the average American will move ______ times during their lifetime.
Women in the Workforce
had more time when not working to get involved with school and things
Why is religious participation important to other forms of participation?
being taught the lesson of serving others and not focusing on self. then you are more looking at others to serve and participate.
What did Brother Rose find in his study of civic engagement in Idaho Falls?
* agreed with Putnam that the overall participation was low and that it could be higher
- more likely to be involved in passive vs. active engagement
- informal activities were engaged in at much higher rate
- half were religious
- politician participation was low like other studies
- educational participation below average
- community group participation low
- recreational was he lowest
- low levels of cultural, artistic, and musical activity
What were the major policy recommendations from Bowling Alone by Robert Putnam?
1. More civics education- class required, teach skills for good citizenship.
2. More family friendly
3. Get people to 'main street'
4. Anything that will get people out- churches
5. Internet, mass media, traditional journalism
What was the major thesis of Hired Help/ Markets and Morals by Michael Sandel?
that markets are out of control and that there are way too many