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64 Cards in this Set

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Non-dividing cells, such as myocardial fibers, are capable of hypertrophy, but not hyperplasia. T/F

True. Only cells that are capable of synthesizing DNA are capable of both.
Dysplasia is a common type of normal cellular adaptation. T/F
False. Dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in size, shape, and organization of mature cells. It is related to hyperplasia and is often called atypical hyperplasia.
Hypertrophy and hyperplasia rarely occur together.T/F
False. In cells that are capable of synthesizing DNA, they do occur together.
A patient with a history of smoking has a bronchial biopsy showing that the normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells have been replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells. The patient is correctly told that this process could be reversed if he quits smoking. T/F
True. Metaplasia is reversible in this case.
Noise, illumination, and prolonged vibrations can cause cellular injury. T/F
True. Additionally, temperature extremes, changes in atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, and other mechanical stresses can also cause cellular injury.
The most common cause of hypoxia is ischemia. T/F
Irreversible damage to the myocardium can be detected by elevation in the contractile protein called troponin, which is released from the myocardial muscle. T/F
Chemical injuries initiate biochemical reactions that damage cell membrane by decreasing the permeability of the plasma membrane. T/F
False. It increases permeability.
Dysplastic changes may be reversible, but may become malignant. T/F

If inciting stimuli are removed, dysplastic changes are reversible. However, they changes are frequently encountered in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract, where they are often found adjacent to cancerous cells.
Melanin protects skin against long exposure to sunlight as well as prevents skin cancer. T/F
True. It accumulates in the epithelial cells (keratinocytes) of the skin and retina.
Aging is the result of a genetically controlled development program or built-in self-destructive processes. T/F
True. This is one theory. The second is that aging is the result of the accumulation of random injuries and events.
Which type of cell adaptation occurs when normal columnar ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchial lining have been replaced by stratified squamous epithelial cells?

a. Hyperplasia
b. Metaplasia
c. Dysplasia
d. Anaplasia
Metaplasia (the reversible replacment of one mature cell by another, sometimes less differentiated , cell type). Usually as the result of smoking.
During ischemia, what effect does the loss of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level have on cells?

a. Cells shrink because of the influx of calcium (Ca).
b. Cells shrink because of the influx of potassium chloride (KCl).
c. Cells swell because of the influx of sodium chloride (NaCl).
d. Cells swell because of the influx of nitric oxide (NO).

Rational for Incorrect answers:
a. While there is an influx of Calcium, the cell swells, not shrinks.
b. Potassium is normally inside the cell. ATP loss causes potassium to move outside the cell.
Free radicals play a major role in the initiation and progression of which diseases?

a. Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease
b. Renal diseases such as acute tubular necrosis and glomerulonephritis
c. Gastrointestinal diseases such as peptic ulcer disease and Crohn disease
d. Muscular disease such as muscular dystrophy and fibromyalgia
How do free radicals cause cell damage?

a. By stealing the cell’s oxygen to stabilize the electron, thus causing hypoxia
b. By stimulating the release of lysosomal enzymes that digest the cell membranes
c. By transferring one of its charged, stabilized atoms to the cell membrane causing lysis
d. By giving up an electron causing injury to the chemical bonds of the cell membrane

A free radical is electrically uncharged,unstable ion. To become stable, it must steal or give up an electron. This makes it capable of injurious chemical bond formaion with proteins, lipids, & carbohydrates
What is a consequence of plasma membrane damage to the mitochondria?

a. Enzymatic digestion halts DNA synthesis.
b. Influx of calcium ions halts the ATP production.
c. Reduction in ATP production caused by edema from an influx in sodium.
d. Shift of potassium out of the mitochondria, which destroys the infrastructure.
What is a consequence of leakage of lysosomal enzymes during chemical injury?

a. Enzymatic digestion of the nucleus and nucleolus occurs halting DNA synthesis.
b. Influx of potassium ions into the mitochondria occurs halting the ATP production.
c. Edema of the Golgi body occurs preventing the transport of proteins out of the cell.
d. Shift of calcium out of the plasma membrane occurs destroying the cytoskeleton.
In hypoxic injury, why does sodium to enter the cell and cause swelling?

a. Because the cell membrane permeability increases for sodium during periods of hypoxia
b. Because there is insufficient ATP to maintain the pump that keeps sodium out of the cell
c. Because the lactic acid produced by the hypoxia binds with sodium within the cell
d. Because sodium cannot be transported in the cytosol to the cell membrane during hypoxia
What is the most common site of lipid accumulation?

a. Coronary and other arteries
b. Kidneys
c. Liver
d. Subcutaneous tissue

Also accumulates in kidneys and liver
What is the cause of free calcium in the cytosol that damages cell membranes by uncontrolled enzyme activation?

a. Activation of endonuclease, which interferes with the binding of calcium to protein
b. Activation of phospholipases, which degrade the proteins to which calcium normally binds
c. An influx of phosphate ions, which compete with calcium for binding to proteins
d. Depletion of ATP, which normally pumps calcium from the cell
What type of necrosis results from ischemia of neurons and glial cells?

a. Coagulative necrosis
b. Liquefactive necrosis
c. Caseous necrosis
d. Gangrene necrosis
The mammary glands enlarge during pregnancy primarily as a consequence of:

a. compensatory hyperplasia.
b. hormonal hyperplasia.
c. hormonal anaplasia.
d. hormonal dysplasia.
What type of necrosis is often associated with pulmonary tuberculosis?

a. Bacteriologic necrosis
b. Caseous necrosis
c. Liquefactive necrosis
d. Gangrenous necrosis
When the heart’s workload increases, what changes occur to the myocardial cells?

a. They divide.
b. They increase in size.
c. They increase in number.
d. They undergo metaplasia.
After ovulation, the uterine endometrial cells divide under the influence of estrogen; this is an example of:

a. hormonal hyperplasia.
b. hormonal dysplasia.
c. hormonal hypertrophy.
d. hormonal anaplasia.
Removal of part of the liver leads to _____ of the remaining liver cells.

a. dysplasia
b. metaplasia
c. compensatory hyperplasia
d. compensatory dysplasia
What is the single most common cause of cellular injury?

a. Hypoxic injury
b. Chemical injury
c. Infectious injury
d. Genetic injury
Both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can cause muscle weakness. T/F
Insulin and glucose can be given to correct hyperkalemia. T/F
Proteins are primarily an intracellular buffer. T/F

along with phosphate
The two main intracellular fluid compartments are the interstitial fluid contained in the nucleus and the intravascular fluid contained in the cell body. T/F
F. They are the two main extracellular compartments.
Infants have the highest overall percentage of body water. T/F
Movement of water from the intracellular fluid (ICF) to the extracellular fluid (ECF) is primarily accomplished by active transport. T/F
False. It is primarily a function of osmotic forces.
Both loss of sodium and gain of water can cause hyponatremia. T/F
Why are infants susceptible to significant losses in total body water (TBW)?

a. Because more than half of an infant’s body weight is water
b. Because infants have a slow metabolic rate
c. Because infant’s kidneys are not mature enough to counter fluids losses
d. Because they are unable communicate adequately when they are thirsty
Why are obese people at greater risk for dehydration than lean people?

a. Because adipose cells contain little water; fat is water repelling
b. Because the metabolic rate of obese adults is slower than lean adults
c. Because the rate of urine output of obese adults is higher than lean adults
d. Because the thirst receptors of the hypothalamus do not function effectively
How does the body reestablish equilibrium when solute is added to extracellular fluid making it hypertonic?

a. Water is drawn from the extracellular space to the intracellular space.
b. Sodium is drawn from the extracellular space to the intracellular space.
c. Sodium is drawn from the intracellular space to the extracellular space.
d. Water is drawn from the intracellular space to the extracellular space.
Low plasma albumin causes edema as a result of a reduction in which pressure?

a. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
b. Interstitial hydrostatic pressure
c. Capillary oncotic pressure
d. Interstitial oncotic pressure
Retention of sodium and water is a cause of edema because of an increase in which pressure?

a. Capillary hydrostatic pressure
b. Interstitial hydrostatic pressure
c. Capillary oncotic pressure
d. Interstitial oncotic pressure
What mechanisms cause hypernatremia?

a. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)b. Cushing’s disease and hyperaldosteronism
c. Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea
d. Excessive diuretic therapy
What causes the clinical manifestations of confusion, convulsions, cerebral hemorrhage, and coma in hypernatremia?

a. The high sodium in the blood vessels pulls water out of brain cells into the blood vessels causing brain cells to shrink.
b. The high sodium in the brain cells pulls water out of blood vessels into the brain cells causing them to swell.
c. The high sodium in the blood vessels pulls potassium out of brain cells, which slows the synapses within the brain.
d. The high sodium in the blood vessels draws chloride into the brain cells followed by water causing brain cells to swell.
How does syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) cause excess water?

a. The increase in antidiuretic hormone causes retention of sodium that retains excessive water in the renal tubules.
b. The decrease in antidiuretic hormone increases serum glucose, which binds to water.
c. The decrease in antidiuretic hormone prevents the renal tubules from reabsorbing water.
d. The increase in antidiuretic hormone causes retention of water in the renal tubules.

excess water due to decrease in renal excretion not by excess water.
What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses?

a. The ratio between intracellular sodium (Na+) and extracellular sodium
b. The ratio between intracellular potassium (K+) and extracellular potassium
c. The ratio between intracellular sodium (Na+) and extracellular potassium (K+)
d. The ratio between intracellular potassium (K+) and extracellular sodium (Na+)
Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of:

a. osmotic forces.
b. plasma oncotic pressure.
c. antidiuretic hormone.
d. hydrostatic forces.
Secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and the perception of thirst are stimulated by a(n):

a. decrease in serum sodium.
b. increase in plasma osmolality.
c. increase in glomerular filtration rate.
d. decrease in osmoreceptor stimulation.
When thirst is experienced, how are osmoreceptors activated?

a. By an increase in the antidiuretic hormone secreted into the plasma
b. By an increase in aldosterone secreted into the plasma
c. By an increase in the hydrostatic pressure of the plasma
d. By an increase in the osmotic pressure of the plasma
What is the action of natriuretic peptides?

a. They decrease blood pressure and increase sodium and water excretion.
b. They increase blood pressure and decrease sodium and water excretion.
c. They increase heart rate and decrease potassium excretion
d. They decrease heart rate and increase potassium excretion.
What are causes of hyperkalemia?

a. Hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition
b. Vomiting and diarrhea
c. Renal failure and crush injuries
d. Hyperaldosteronism and Cushing disease
Hypermagnesemia is usually caused by:

a. hepatitis.
b. renal failure.
c. trauma to the hypothalamus.
d. pancreatitis.
In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of:

a. cardiac cell hypopolarization.
b. cardiac cell hyperexcitability.
c. depression of the sinoatrial (SA) node.
d. cardiac cell repolarization.
_____ alterations occur when changes in total body water (TBW) are accompanied by proportional changes in electrolytes.

a. Isotonic
b. Hypertonic
c. Hypotonic
d. Normotonic
The calcium and phosphate balances are influenced by which three substances?

a. Parathyroid hormone, vasopressin, and vitamin D
b. Parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin D
c. Thyroid hormone, vasopressin, and vitamin A
d. Thyroid hormone, calcitonin, and vitamin A
Chvostek’s sign and Trousseau’s sign indicate:

a. hypokalemia.
b. hyperkalemia.
c. hypocalcemia.
d. hypercalcemia.
Excessive use of magnesium- and aluminum-containing laxatives can result in:

a. hypomagnesemia.
b. hypophosphatemia.
c. hyponatremia.
d. hypokalemia.
Which enzyme is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney when circulating blood volume is reduced?

a. Angiotensin I
b. Angiotensin II
c. Aldosterone
d. Renin

Renin stimulates the formaton of Angiotensin I, which is converted into Angiotensin II, which stimulates the secretion of Aldosterone
Which are causes of hypocalcemia?a. Repeated blood administration or pancreatitisb. Kidney stones and immobilityc. Decreased resorption of calcium and phosphate from boned. Hyperparathyroidism and bone metastasis
Match the electrolytes with the corresponding descriptions. (Terms can be used more than once.)

a. Sodium
b. Chloride
c. Potassium
d. Magnesium
e. Phosphate

1 Regulation of osmolality
2 Inversely related to HCO3 concentration
3 Major determinant of resting membrane potential
4 An intracellular metabolic form is ATP
5 Changes in hydrogen ion concentration affect this electrolyte
6 Required for glycogen deposition in the liver
7 Acts as an intracellular and extracellular anion buffer
Match each electrolyte imbalance with its clinical manifestations.

a. Hyponatremia
b. Hypernatremia
c. Hypercalcemia
d. Hypokalemia
e. Hypomagnesemia

1. Absent bowel sounds, skeletal muscle weakness, bradycardia
2 Depression, confusion, irritability, increased reflexes, tetany
3 Confusion, irritability, depression, headache, seizures
4 Fatigue, weakness, kidney stones, varying degrees of heart block
5 Weight gain, bounding pulse, increased blood pressure, edema
What two types of hearing loss are associated with noise?

a. Acoustic trauma and noise-induced
b. High-frequency and low-frequency
c. High-frequency and acoustic trauma
d. Noise-induced and low-frequency
During cell injury caused by hypoxia, why do sodium and water move into the cell?

a. Because potassium moves out of the cell, and potassium and sodium are inversely related
b. Because the pump that transports sodium out of the cell cannot function because of a decreased in ATP
c. Because the osmotic pressure is increased, which pulls additional sodium across the cell membrane
d. Because oxygen is not available to bind with sodium to maintain it outside of the cell
During cell injury caused by hypoxia, why is there an increase in the osmotic pressure within the cell?

a. Because plasma proteins enter the cell
b. Because the ATPase-driven pump is stronger during hypoxia
c. Because sodium chloride enters the cell
d. Because there is an influx of glucose through the injured cell membranes

Sodium and water move in, potassium moves out. Chloride is passively transported via the active transport of sodium.
Which is a description of the characteristics of apoptosis?

a. A programmed cell death of scattered, single cells
b. Characterized by swelling of the nucleus and cytoplasm
c. Has unpredictable patterns of cell death
d. Results in benign malignancies
What is the explanation for why cancer increases as one ages and the number of autoantibodies increases with age?

a. Because the genetic program for aging is encoded in the brain and controlled by hormonal agents
b. Because free radicals of oxygen that result from oxidative cellular metabolism cause abnormal cell growth
c. Because the immune function declines with age
d. Because of the result of DNA damage and inefficiency of cellular repair
Match the terms with the corresponding examples. Terms may be used more than once.

a. Physiologic atrophy
b. Pathologic atrophy
c. Physiologic hypertrophy
d. Pathologic hypertrophy
e. Compensatory hyperplasia

1Changes in gonads as hormonal stimulation decreases
2Liver regeneration
3Increases in the size of the uterus and breasts during pregnancy
4Thymus gland changes during childhood
5Causes myocardial enlargement as a result of dilated cardiac chambers
1. b
2. e
3. c
4. a
5. d