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61 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
reduced # of erythrocytes; decreased quantity of hgb in erythrocytes
causes of anemia
impaired production, blood loss, increased destruction
vascular response of anemia
increase blood flow by vascular dilation and increased heart rate
pulmonary response of anemia
increase the rate and depth of respirations
clinical manifestations of anemia
dyspnea, tachycardia, fatigue, dizziness
more clinical manifestations of anemia
pale skin, mucuous membranes, lips, nail beds, impaired healing, pale conjuntivae, thinning/graying of hair, paresthesias, weakness, abdominal pain, N/V, anorexia
megaloblastic; erythrocytes large in size, abnormally shaped, normal Hgb
small erythrocytes, abnormally shaped, reduced Hgb
normal size, normal Hgb
macrocytic-normochromic characterized by what?
defective DNA synthesis
defective DNA synthesis associated with megaloblastic anemia causes problems with what?
defective DNA associated with megaloblastic anemia is usually a result of what?
B12 or folic acid deficiency
megaloblastic anemia has what affect on the erythrocytes,Hgb and RBCs?
large, thick erythrocytes with normal Hgb; premature death of RBCs within the bone marrow
folate deficiency anemia is what type of anemia?
folic acid is essential for what process?
erythrocyte production and maturation
specific S/S of Folate Deficiency Anemia
stomatitis, cheilosis, painful ulcerations of the mouth, buccal mucosa, & tongue, dysphagia, flatulence, watery diarrhea
folate deficiency anemia is associated with what cancer?
colorectal cancer
characteristics of Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemia
-small RBCs
-abnormally low Hgb content
alterations of erythrocytes in Microcytic-Hypochromic anemia are associated with what 3 things?
-disorders of iron metabolism
-disorders of porpyrin & heme synthesis
-disorders of globin synthesis
iron deficiency anemia is what type of anemia?
at risk populations for iron deficiency anemia
-women of child bearing age
causes of iron deficiency anemia
-chronic blood loss
-poor dietary intake
-meds that cause GI bleeding (insads)
stage 1 of iron deficiency anemia
iron stores for red cell production and Hgb synthesis are depleted
stage 2 of iron deficiency anemia
low amts of iron are transported to the bone marrow, causing iron deficient cells to be produced
stage 3 of iron deficiency anemia
Hgb deficient cells enter circulation & replace normal cells
clinical manifestations of iron deficiency anemia (later)
-spoons shaped nails
-dry, cracked mouth corners
polycythemia vera
overproduction of RBCs with increased WBCs and PLTs
pathophysiology of polycythemia vera
non-malignant condition causing abnormal proliferation of bone marrow stem cells; underlying cause remains unkown
clinical manifestations of polycythemia vera
-increased blood volume/viscosity
-vessel occlusion -> tissue ischemia -> infarction
-increased BP
-unique painful itching = pruritis
-ruddy, red color of the face, hands, feet, ears, mucous membranes
pathophysiology for leukemias
uncontrolled proliferation of malignant leukocytes -> overcrowding of bone marrow -> decreased production/function of normal cells
leukemias are more common in who?
adults and males
clinical manifestations of leukemias
-weight loss
-liver, spleen, lymph node enlargement
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
most common NON-LYMPHOCYTIC leukemia
S/S of AML
-enlarged liver/spleen
-hyperplasia of gums
-bone pain
Chronic Myelod Leukemia (CML) S/S
-enlarged/tender liver and or spleen
-weight loss
CML is diagnosed as a WBC count as what...?
WBC > 100,000/mm3
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is most common among who?
older adults
S/S of CLL
-painful lymphadenopathy
-extreme diaphoresis (especially at night)
-unintentional weight loss
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is most common in who?
young children and boys
causes of ALL
-genetic susceptibility
-environmental factors
-viral infections
S/S of ALL
-enlarged liver/spleen
-bone pain
Thrombocytopenia is defined as a platelet count of what?
Platelet count with hemorrhage from MINOR TRAUMA
Platelet count with SPONTANEOUS BLEEDING
Platelet count with SEVERE BLEEDING
causes of thrombocytopenia
-autoimmune disease
-viral/bacterial infections
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) -Chronic
IgG antibodies target platelet glycoproteins -> antibody-coated platelets are sequestered and removed from the circulation
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) -Acute
-viral infection
one fo the most common childhood bleeding disorders is what?
ACUTE Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
clinical manifestations of ITP
-progesses to major hemorrhage
Thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP) pathophysiology
1. platelet aggregation
2. formation of microthrombi
3. occlusion of arterioles and caillaries
Chronic relapsing TTP is most commonly seen in this population
Chronic relapsing TTP S/S are not as severe. True or false?
TRUE: signs and symptoms of CHRONIC RELAPSING TTP are not as severe as acute idiopathic TTP.
ACUTE idiopathic TTP most commonly affects this population
women in their 30's
S/S of Acute Idiopathic TTP
-severe thrombocytopenia (<20,000/mm3)
-CNS disturbances
-kidney failure
Essential (Primary) Thrombocythemia is characterized by what 2 things
-platelet counts <400,000/mm3
-myeloproliferativev disorder of platelet precursor cells
what is an example of the myeloproliferative disorder in essential thrombocytopenia?
megakaryocytes in the bone marrow are produced in excess
what commonly occurs with Essential Thrombocythemia?
microvasculature thrombosis
S/S of essential thrombocythemia (related to ischemia)
-digital ischemia
-pain with standing/exercise
-organ ischemia
how does a Vitamin K deficiency affect coagulation?
it is necessary for synthesis and regulation of prothrombin, prothrombin factors and anticoagulant proteins
how does Liver Disease affect coagulation?
Liver Disease causes a broad range of hemostasis disorders