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38 Cards in this Set

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Highway Beautification Act

passed October 1965 by LBJ

created 23 USC 131 or Section 131 of Title 23, United States Code

called for control of outdoor advertising, including removal of certain types of signs, along the nation's growing Interstate Highway System and the existing federal-aid primary highway system

in 1978 Congress adopted an amendment to the Highway Beautification Act which ties the hands of local governments that want to remove nonconforming billboards along Federal highways. Before the amendment was adopted, local governments in many states could require the removal of nonconforming billboards along Federal highways, offering compensation through amortization under state and local police powers and not paying out public monies. The Act now requires local governments to pay billboard owners before a nonconforming billboard can be removed.

trip end

origin or destination point of a journey

transportation forecasting model

the process of estimating the number of vehicles or people that will use a specific transportation facility in the future.

For instance, a forecast may estimate the number of vehicles on a planned road or bridge, the ridership on a railway line, the number of passengers visiting an airport, or the number of ships calling on a seaport.

4 steps of the transportation forecasting model

1. trip generation

2. trip distribution

3. mode choice

4. route assignment

trip generation

the number of trips that a particular site is likely to generate.

a byproduct of land use and household demographics, and other socio-economic factors.

trip distribution

examines where people are going. a region or area is often divided into traffic zones.

generally provides information on how many trips are made between each traffic zone and every other zone, trip distances, time and cost, the nature of the trip, SES characteristics, and the nature of the transportation system

mode choice

computes the proportion of trips between each origin and destination that use a particular transportation mode

traffic assignment

aka trip assignment

uses network models to predict the distribution of traffic for each roadway by the hour. gives info on the routes that will be used.

peak volumes can then be compared with DHV to see which, if any, roadways are going to experience traffic over their design capacity (i.e., where congestion may be)

ways to define and determine trip generation rates

origin-destination survey

cross tabulation model

origin-destination survey

requires road blocks be set up along major routes.

cordon line = imaginary line of study boundary

motorists are sampled and asked questions on where they are coming from and whether they are going. more detailed questions may also be given

cross tabulation model

allows for estimates of trip generation rates based on land use type, purpose or SES characteristics

gravity model

attempts to quantify rather complex trip generation relationships. provides trip estimates based directly on the proportional attractiveness of the zone and inversely proportional to the trip length.

modal split

deals with how people get to where they want to go, and the form of transportation that they use.

able to estimate how many vehicles need to get from one place to another

Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT)

the amount of traffic on a roadway in a 24 hour period, averaged over a year

Peak Hour Volume

equals the hourly traffic during the peak period

Seasonal Hour Volume

the peak hour volumes during different seasons

Design Hour Volume (DHV)

the capacity of the roadway to handle traffic

vehicle miles traveled (VMT)

a measure of vehicular mobility obtained from travel inventories

a function of many factors: topography, population density, travel distances, and availability of mass transit

road design

focuses on everything fro the nature of street hierarchy to actual design guidelines for local streets.

purpose of local or residential streets

serve only local land uses

purpose of collectors

to serve some land uses directly while collecting traffic from local streets and funneling it to major roads and arterials

purpose of major roads or arterials

to further move traffice and allow access to freeways or other streets

purpose of freeways

have limited access

responsible for moving the largest volume of traffic at the fastest speed

the most basic road pattern

the grid

invented by the ancient greeks

advantages of the grid road pattern

- ease of laying out streets, lot lines

- ease of navigation

disadvantages of the grid road pattern

- max number of 4-way intersections, which can create conflicts

- tangent standards can not always be met

- maximum pavement and utility line costs

- streets can be used as parallel short-cuts during rush hour

- grids can be monotonous and boring

minimum street gradient


maximum street gradient

in areas with cold winters: 5%

in areas with mild winters: 8%

variants of class grid design

block grid, curved block grid, and curved grid

other street patterns

- loop streets with min and max depth standards

- cul-de-sacs with max length and min radius standards of 400-450 feet long and 40-foot turn-around radius

- plaza and hammerheaad style (don't provide enough turn around)

Highway Capacity Manual

published by the Transportation Research Board

provides concepts, guidelines, and procedures for computing highway capacity and quality of service based on road type

Level of Service (LOS)

Ranges is from A to F

A = free flowing traffic

B = reasonably free flowing traffic, maneuverability is slightly restricted

C = stable flow, but ability to maneuver through lanes is noticeably restricted, posted speed is maintained

D = approaching unstable flow. speeds slightly decrease, maneuverability is much more limited

E = unstable flow, operating at capacity. flow irregular and speed varies widely. any incident will create serious delays

F = heavy traffic congestion with severely reduced traffic speeds. frequent slowing required. road in a constant traffic jam

Which railways joined to form the first transcontinental railway?

The rail line was built by three private companies: the original Western Pacific Railroad Company between Oakland and Sacramento, California, the Central Pacific Railroad Company of California eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory, and the Union Pacific Railroad Company westward to Promontory Summit from the road's statutory Eastern terminus at Council Bluffs on the eastern shore of the Missouri River opposite Omaha, Nebraska.


Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, 1998.

authorized federal surface transportation programs for highways,highway safety, and transit for the 6-year period 1998-2003. Because Congress could not agree on funding levels, the Act, which had continued past 2003 by means of temporary extensions, was allowed to lapse.

The transportation equity act requires that seven planning factors be included in regional transportation plans. The plans must:

1. support the economic vitality of the metropolitan planning area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity and efficiency;

2. increase the safety and security of the transportation system for motorized and non-motorized users ;

3. increase the accessibility and mobility options available to people and for freight;

4. protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;

5. enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system across and between Mode of transportmodes, for people and freight;

6. promote efficient system management and operation; and

7. emphasize the efficient preservation of existing transportation systems.

Continued the CMAQ program. Established TCSP program.

Transportation and Community and System Preservation Pilot Program (TCSP)

intended to address the relationships among transportation, community, and system preservation plans and practices and identify private sector-based initiatives to improve those relationships.

Funds may be used to carry out eligible projects to integrate transportation, community, and system preservation plans and practices that:

- Improve the efficiency of the transportation system of the United States.

- Reduce the impacts of transportation on the environment.

- Reduce the need for costly future investments in public infrastructure.

- Provide efficient access to jobs, services, and centers of trade.

- Examine community development patterns and identify strategies to encourage private sector development.


Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program, early 1990's

implemented to support surface transportation projects and other related efforts that contribute air quality improvements and provide congestion relief.

the legislation places considerable emphasis on diesel engine retrofits and other efforts that underscore the priority on reducing fine particle pollution

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991

presented an overall intermodal approach to highway and transit funding with collaborative planning requirements, giving significant additional powers to metropolitan planning organizations. Signed into law on December 18, 1991, was followed by TEA-21 in 1998, SAFETEA-LU in 2005, and MAP 21 in 2012.

Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21)

a funding and authorization bill to govern United States federal surface transportation spending. Passed in 2012 and, with some reforms, is an extension of SAFETEA-LU from 2005