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106 Cards in this Set

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Pax Romana

UniversalPeace of Augustus Caesar

Mayorduomo

chamberlainof the palace

Gentileshombres de cámara

chamberlain;gentleman of the chamber

Valido

favorite

Privado

Confidant and favorite

Mahl

stick with a soft leather head, used by painters to support the hand with which they hold the paint brush

patina

surfaceshine of a wooden or metal sculpture; also greenish tinge of bronze due tooxidation

Spheres

Celestial,Armillary, Earthly Spheres

Caballero

spanish knight

cavaleiro

portuguese knight

grandee

Spanishor Portuguese nobleman of the highest rank, often in possession of substantiallands

Condotierro

Italiancommander

CECIS VISUS TIMES QVIES

Sightof the Blind, Tranquity for the Fearful: Mary Tudor motto

IAM ILLUSTRABIT OMNIA

Nowat last all things are illumined: Philip II motto

Vertugado

farthingdale; stiff cone-shaped underskirt, shapedhoop skirts made of whalebone, cloth and intricate cares of wire

Guardinfante

wideFarthingdale “guard the infant"

Cartón de pecho

breastplateof a dress; bodice

Capa

cape

Puntos

metalclasps

Muceta

shortcape, often hooded

Chapín

woodenplatform shoe

Carcanet

jeweledshort necklace

Cuello de lechuguilla

lettuce-likelace ruffed collar

Golilla

cardboard collar popular after sumptuary law of 1621

Jubón

jacket

Bragueta

fly/codpiece

Calzas

Spanishslashed pantaloons

Bohemia

elegantcape, often bordered with fur, gold, silver

Cadenas de Oro/Correntes de Ouro

goldchains in Spain and Portugal

Puñal/Punhal

dagger,poniard in Spain and Portugal

espada

sword

Chiaroscuro

subtlecontrasts of light and dark tones

Tenebristic/Tenebrism

theatricallighting; dramatic tonal contrasts

Cateau-Cambrésis

Peacetreaty between Spain and France, April 3, 1559, marked end of discord overItaly

San Quentin

battleAugust 10, 1557; Spain victorious over France

Stadholder

Dutchtitle for governor

Lapidary

engravedon stone, fine art of cutting precious stones

Lapidarist

specialistin cutting stone

Zibellino

fleafur or fur tippet, meaning “sable”, woman’s fashion accessory in the 15th-16thcenturies, signifying fertility and protection of the mother

Limning

: fineart of miniature, often painted on copper, later ivory

Limner

artistspecializing in miniatures

Porphyry

hardigneous rock with large crystals, anciently quarried in Egypt, darkpurplish-red colour

Grand Entry

Ceremonialpageantry usually involving a courtly procession and the display of triumphalarchs in the Roman manner, evocative of the celebration of Caesar’s martialtriumphs

Grisaille

term used to describe painting executed entirely inmonochrome or near monochrome, usually in tones of grey, often used indecorative schemes to imitate sculpture

Retableof El Espinar

Church of S. Eutropio, ElEspinar, near Segovia; built under Don Diego de Covarrubias de Leiva,Presidente del Consejo Real: Contracts 26 June 1573-February 25, 1574, with theassistance of Francisco Giralte, who was responsible for the architecture andsculpture of the retable; Alonso Sánchez Coello created the Lenten hangings forthe center and lateral sides

Coleira

collarportion of armour, often decorated with the Order of the Golden Fleece

De Parada

nameof the sword of Philip II fashioned by Clemente Horn of Solingen

Armada

termfor a fleet of ships

El Reale

nameof the famed flagship of Don Juan of Austria at Lepanto; literally “the Royal”

Adarga:

Muslimleather shield

Scimitar/Talwar

Longcurved Muslim steel sword with a hilt and scabbard, blade frequently widens atthe tip; from Persian Shamsher, which means ”paw claw”

Arquebus

portablelong barreled gun dating from the 15th century; fired by awheel-lock or matchlock

Fortuna

goddessof destiny and fate, often shown with a cornucopia

Bellona

sisterof Mars, god of War, often shown in armour

La Gloria

allegoricalfigure denoting victory and triumph

Neptune

godof the oceans

Alcáçer Quibir

Land battle in Northern Morocco fought on August 4,1578 against the troops of Almed Mohammed of Fez

Carrack/Caravel

largesailing vessel, a galleon, which canbe double or triple masted, has a forecastle and poop, in use from 1300s to the1500s

Nau/Naus

supply vessel/s

Paço de Ribeira

RiverbankPalace in Lisbon with the Tower of Philip II

Palacio/Paco

termfor Palace in Spanish and Portuguese

Torre/Torreão

termfor Tower in Spanish and Portuguese

Catedral/Sé

termfor Cathedral in Spanish and Portuguese

Campo del Moro

Moors Field

Manzanares River

Riveraround Madrid overlooked by the Royal Palace

Patio del Rey/Patio de la Reina

: Courtyards of the King and Queen

Corridor del Sol

Southwestcorridor uniting Philip II’s Torre Dorada (Gilded Tower) with the Torre delHomenaje (Tower of Homage) at the Alcázar of Madrid. The second tower of theSouth Façade was the Torre del Bastimento

Metamorphoses: Book of Transformations

, a narrative poem authored by the Roman Ovid (43BCE-17/18 AD) under Augustus Caesar, acontemporary of Virgil and Horace; thetext comprises 15 books and over 250 myths

Mannerism

meaningaffected or mannered; Style of art circa 1520-1580, characterized by distortionof figures, elongated proportions, imbalance, stylized drapery, puzzled facialexpressions, unusual color combinations (pink and red, purple and yellow;aqua), lack of spatial clarity and perspective, odd figural poses; anti-classical

Patronymic/matronymic

namederiving from the name of a father/male ancestor or mother/female ancestor

Sanguine

drawingin reddish-brown colour ideal for rendering volume and modeling; term alsoapplied to orange or brownish toned drawings

Schilderstraetke

paintersstreet (Dutch)

Lieve Vrouwe Broederschap

Brotherhoodof Our Lady

Devotio Moderna

reforming brotherhood which accorded with the idealsof Geert Groote (1340-1384), a preacher of Utrecht who founded the Brethren ofthe Common Life near Deventer in 1381

Scriptorium

placefor the making of manuscripts

Antiphilus

ancient Greek artist who was patronized by Philip ofMacedonia, and rival of Apelles, the favorite painter of Alexander the Great.Antiphilus specialized in the representation of fantastic scenes of gryllos(swine). This genre of depicting semi-bestial figures likely originated withillustrations of themes from the Odyssey, ie. The enchantment of Odysseus andhis men by Circe, the mythical equivalent of Eve

Das Narrenschiff

meaning Ship of Fools: Satirical Book aboutthe vices of drunken sailors written by Sebastian Brant (1457-1521) andpublished in Basel, Switzerland

Die Bau Schuyte

Shipof Fools), engraving by Pieter van der Heyden

Deadly Sins

Envy,Anger, Pride, Sloth, Gluttony, Avarice

Het Sterfboeck: Bookof Death

Dutchequivalent to the Latin Ars Moriendi (Art of Dying, 1415long version, composed by a Dominican friar in Germany – with five temptationsbeseting a dying man – lack of faith, despair, impatience, spiritual pride andavarice

La mer des hystoires, “Sea of Stories”

” a French adaptation of world history, published inLatin in 1475 and in French in 1488

Charon

Ferryman on the River Styx between Elysium(Elysian Fields of a blessed and happy afterlife) and Tartarus (deep abyss and place of divinejudgment)

Antediluvian

timebefore the biblical flood or pre-diluvian (before the delugedescribed in Genesis 7/8)

Guadarrama Mountains

rangeof mountains in northern Spain near the Escorial Palace

Escorial

literally“slag heap”; building materials of the residence built and decorated between1563 and 1592, dedicated to St. Lawrence, on whose feast day (August 10) thebattle of San Quentin was won in 1557 by Spain against Henri II of France

Hieronymite

Religiousorder founded in Bethlehem by St. Jerome

Estilo desornamentado

literally“unadorned style”; inaugurated Juan de Herrera, frequently called the“Herreran” architectural style. Popular during the 16th and 17thcenturies in Spain and the Americas, the sober stone work with slate roofs,unarticulated windows and corner towers has reminiscences from French classicalchâteaux.

Doric, Ionic, Corinthian

Typeof Column Capitals distinctive to classical architecture; can be grand orderwith engaged columns embedded into the structure

Court of the Kings

HebrewKings Jehosophat, Hezekian, David, Solomon, Josiah, Manasseh

Oratory

Roomfor private prayer adjoining bedchamber

Tabernacle

designedby Juan de Herrera and Jacomé da Trezzo with assistance of Juan Bautista Comaneand Pompeo Leoni, 1579-86; modeled after Bramante’s Tempietto in Rome,displaying jasper Corinthian columns with gold columns; small figures of the 12Apostles with the Resurrected Christ at the summit of the gold

Jardín

garden

huerta

veggie garden

parterre

FormalGarden consisting of symmetrical beds of plants, often topiaries (cut boxwoods)and plots of flowers; can be heraldic in design

estanque

lake

loggia

Italianatecovered arched walkway for inclement weather

La Lonja

“The Market Porch”- garden of the Escorial Palace-Monasteryused for convalescents, contained topiaries all’antica and especiallyherbal/perfumary parterres, also called the Jardín de los Frailes (Garden ofthe Monks)

Patio de Mascarones

Courtyardof the Masques, theatrical performances

Despacho

office

dormitorio

bedchamber

antecamara

antechamber

Salón de Audiencias/Sala de Trono

AudienceRoom/Hall of Ambassadors

Intarsia

inlaidwood doors; marquetry; same term also used for inlaid work with polished stones

Sala de Banquetes

: Banqueting Hall

Carnestolendas

Celebrationbefore Lent which starts with Ash Wednesday (February or March), carnival;about four weeks prior to the feast of Easter

Salas de Batallas: Hall of Battles

decorationof the Prince’s Gallery with frescoes