Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/21

Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

A01 SLT of Aggression

Attention


Retention


Reproduction


Reinforcement



Learned through observation and imitation



Bandura:


Findings:


- Children in the aggressive condition showed much more verbal and physical aggression


- Boys and girls were both more influences by a male model



Same thing with Bandura and Ross but with films


A02 Bandura evaluation

:) Methodology - the exact copying of the phrases repeated by the children shows that aggression was learned



:( Methodology - amount of times bobo doll is hit may not be accurate measure of aggression



:( Sample - Only children were used so cannot be generalised to adults as they may react differently



:( Methodology - Lacks ecological validity as children may have simply been affected by strict lab conditions

A02 SLT of Aggression

:) :( - Williams found that aggression increased after the introduction of TV on the island of St Helena.


However, Charlton found the opposite.



:) - Bandura found that people loving in areas with a high crime rate had higher levels of violence


:( - Too simplistic to assume that aggression is always learnt.



:( - Alternative approaches such as biological approach are ignored, despite genetics being a key factor in predisposition of aggression.


:( - Too simplistic to assume that aggression is always learnt.:( - Alternative approaches such as biological approach are ignored, despite genetics being a key factor in predisposition of aggression.:( - Deterministic explanation that doesn't take free will into account. Not all people from violent communities become aggressive.



:( - Deterministic explanation that doesn't take free will into account. Not all people from violent communities become aggressive.

A01 of Deindividuation

Def: "the loss of a sense of individual identity, and a loosening of normal inhibitions"



LeBon "the greater the anonymity, the greater the threat of extreme action and aggression."



General Features:


- won't see the consequences of actions


- social norms are forgotten


- collective hive mind takes over


- leads to aggression



Zimbardo:


- Diminishes awareness of individuality


- Larger group = greater anonymity


- Less fear of judgement from others


- Reduced sense of guilt



• Reduced responsibility



• Sensory overload


• Increased arousal• Sensory overload• Altered consciousness (e.g. drugs)


• Altered consciousness (e.g. drugs)



Self-awareness:


PUBLIC (an individual's concern for other people's opinion):


- Private self-awareness reduced by anonymity


- Loss of normal public standards



PRIVATE (an individual's concern for their own thoughts and feelings):


- Public self-awareness makes individuals "forget themselves" and rely overly on the crowd for cues

A02 Zimbardo's Stamford Prison Experiment

Findings: The simulated prison resulted in a brutal environment where the guards has total control and acted extremely aggressively with verbal and physical abuse.


- Prisoners became very passive and many had mental breakdowns leading to the sudden end of the experiment.


- Guards behaved in an authoritarian manner and seemed to enjoy their power and control.



Conclusion: Deindividuation leads to a loss of personal identity and inhibitions supporting the theory.

A02 Zimbardo's Stamford Prison Study

:) Ecological validity - the setting and behaviour of prisoners and guards were realistic suggesting that it was an ecological valid study.



:) Ecological validity - real-life examples such as Abu Grahib echo the findings of this study suggesting that it produced realistic results.



:( Sample - the sample was only white, middle class, mentally stable Americans, so there are issues applying these results to other types of people.



:( (IDA) Ethics - It was a highly controversial study which broke many of the ethical guidelines of today (psych harm, phys harm, fully informed consent ect). Therefore, not only was it unethical, but it could never be repeated in today's world to confirm that reliability of the results.



:) (IDA) Practical Apps - This research could be used to handle cases of institutional aggression and to decrease he likelihood of prisoners being abused or prison riots.

A02 of Deindividuation

:) Mann - Baiting suicide jumpers usually happened in a large crowd in poorly lit areas, some distance away from the jumper. These features echo the features of deindividuation, and Mann suggested baiting was due to deindividuated crowds.



:) Zimbardo - asked female participants to dress in coats similar to the KKK and hoods. A control group wore name tags and casual clothes. They were then asked to administer fake shocks to a participant (confederate). The experimental group administered more shocks than the control group.



:( Johnson and Downing - repeated Zimbardo's KKK study but with a second experimental group of women in nurse's uniforms. The nurses administered less shocks than even the control group, weakening the theory.



:) (IDA) Practical application - CCTV could be used to prevent deindividuation at high-risk areas such as football matches to prevent aggression



:( (IDA) Nature/nurture - ignores nature but hard to ignore roles of testosterone and serotonin.



:( (IDA) Alternative approaches - biological model could help explain e.g. Delgado found that stimulating the hypothalamus can lead to immediate violence in monkeys.

A01 of Institutional Aggression - Importation Model

Dispositional Factors - Importation Model (Irwin and Cressey)


- Inmates import their aggression into the institution


- Outside influences affect behaviour inside institutions



Factors:


Alcohol


Age


Addiction


Race


Experience


Personality



Irwin and Cressey also identified the three subcultures of inmates.



1.) Criminal - those who rely on crime as a career. Value not betraying others, trustworthiness and reliability. Will resort to aggression if it accomplishes an aim, but not as aggressive as convicts.



2.) Convict - grown up in the system. Most aggressive, and value positions of power and higher ranks.



3.) Conventional - one-time offenders which reject other subcultures and associate themselves more with the guards rather than other inmates. They are least aggressive.

A01 of Institutional Aggression - Deprivation Model

Situational Factors - Deprivation Model:



The factors which affect aggression:


• Organisation - leadership, policies


• Physical - security level, resources


• Staff - gender, experience, interaction with inmates



Sykes' Deprivations:



1.) Security - fearing for their own safety as guards perceive them as aggressive and are ready to respond with equal aggression.



2.) Heterosexual relationships - for men, female companionship is important for self-wholeness and absence of it can lead to a lack of self-worth leading to anxiety and aggression.



3.) Liberty - imprisonment tells inmates that they're not trusted and worth less than others in society. Numbers and uniforms are evidence of this.



4.) Autonomy - no power and little control over their own life lead to a feeling of helplessness which the prisoners may attempt to wrestle back the aggression.



5.) Goods - a loss of goods in the Western world can lead to a lack of a sense of self-worth and failure.




Zimbardo's Lucifer Effect:



Believed that individuals adopt roles to win a game of "them-and-us" where each side employ strategies to outwit the other side to control the situation. The game takes over and people start behaving aggressively.

A02 of Importation Model

:) Mills - surveyed inmates using Alcohol Dependency Scale finding that higher ratings coincided with aggressive behaviour in prison.



:) Irwin and Cressey - one-time offenders were seen as "straights" by other subcultures who were distinctly separate from the more violent groups, supporting importation.



:) Harer - found that black inmates displayed higher levels of violence but white inmates had higher levels of drug and alcohol abuse. This shows that racial differences can affect aggression as suggested by the model.



:) The model takes a holistic view of inmates as it regards their past lives outside the prison as well as their current situation.



:( (IDA) Alternative approaches - ignores evolutionary and biological explanations. The MAOA gene may play a part in aggression as well as institutional.



:( :) (IDA) Nature/Nurture: places a lot of emphasis on nurture, but hormone levels can affect aggression as well, so it may have a nature factor involved as well.



:( (IDA) Gender bias - Not much research has been conducted on females and they may react to institutions differently from men.

A02 of Deprivation Model

:) McCorkle - found that overcrowding, lack of privacy and meaningful activity led to aggression in inmates. However, the strongest link with aggression was with prison administrative practices. Lack of staff discipline and a high staff turnover all contributed greatly to aggression levels.



:) Light - found that overcrowding can lead to an increase in aggression in prisoners.



:( Light - 25℅ of prison assaults had no apparent reason making it difficult to pinpoint the specific deprivation that sets them off.



:) Sykes - found that a deprivation of goods bring about a sense of failure and frustration, leading aggression.



:) (IDA) Practical applications - could be used to decrease aggression levels in problematic institutions.



:( (IDA) Gender bias - research focuses on male prisoners but little has been done on females.

A01 Neural and Hormonal

The structure of the brain may induce aggression. The limbic system includes the hypothalamus and amygdala, which are responsible for aggression. The prefrontal cortex is thought to be responsible for inhibiting inappropriate displays of aggression. This has been found through lesioning and stimulating parts of the brain.

A02 Neural mechanisms in aggression

:) :( Delgado - found that monkeys attacked others when their hypothalamus was stimulated. Similar behaviour has been found in cats. However, they only attacked monkeys lower than themselves in the social order suggesting that they still have some control over the aggression.



:) Raine

(A01) The Evolutionary Approach to Aggression (Human Aggression)

Human Aggression:


- Aggression is viewed as being an adaptive advantage that helped people to survive.


- Aggression serves a purpose when competition for limited resources arises, so males would use aggression to compete against each other


- Males who were skilled at aggression would pass their genes on and only the aggressive ones would survive


- Led to genetic tendency


- Denisuik believes males would be unlikely to aggress against females as the females would be less likely to choose them as mates as it would be potentially harmful to them or their children.


- Men who showed aggression whilst hunting would be more likely to make kills and would survive longer, and this would make them more desirable to females.

(A01) The Evolutionary Approach to Aggression (Infidelity and Jealousy)

Infidelity and Jealousy:


- Infidelity = a sexual partner being unfaithful


- Can be emotional/sexual infidelity (define these terms)


- Jealousy = fear of losing affection/status, aroused by a perceived threat to the relationship


- 99℅ of married couples expect fidelity


- 11℅ of males and 21℅ of females cheat.


- Anger is often focused on partner rather than rival


- Females look for a man with resources and strength to defend and protect the family


- Males look for attractiveness and fertility to continue his lineage.


- Men are more distressed about sexual infidelity (due to possible risk of child not being his)


- Females are more distressed about emotional fidelity (due to risk of withdrawing protection and resources.)



Mate Retention Strategies include:


- Direct guarding - e.g. coming home from work early to check on partner, reading texts, tracking them e.c.t.


- Negative inducement - the name threatens the female, and can involve physical/verbal abuse


- Uxoricide - partner killing

(A02) The Evolutionary Approach to Aggression (infidelity and jealousy)

:) Daly & Wilson - found that men who have been left or about to be left commit a high proportion of uxoricide



:) Buss and Dedden - found that females criticise the appearance of others to reduce rivals' chances of securing a mate. In theory, this raises their own chances of getting a mate.



:) Harris - conducted a meta analysis and found that females are more disturbed by emotional infidelity and males were more upset by sexual infidelity.



:) Camilleri - investigated a theory known as the cuckoldry risk hypothesis, which suggests that males who have been cuckolded are more likely to commit violent acts such as partner rape.

(A01) Evolutionary Explanations of Group Displays in Humans (Evolutionary theory)

- Ritualised displays of aggression and between groups of people


- Increases survival rates and reproduction rates


- Used to intimidate other groups


- The threat of violence can be an important tactic


- Xenophobia is the fear or hatred of foreign groups or cultures. It makes sense evolutionarily as overcautiousness is not likely to kill you as much as laziness and complacency.

(A01) Evolutionary Explanations of Group Displays in Humans (Sports)

- Ritual events performed to intimidate opponents


- War dances can be seen in sporting events such as the haka


- Used to motivate and intimidate


- Haka is Maori display of aggression, often performed before a rugby game


- Used to dissuade opponents


- Sporting events replaced tribal warfare and used as trials of strength and skill where behaviours that females find attractive are displayed


- Allows for achieving resources without actually incurring injury


- Increases status for supporters too


- Elements of war have been incorporated e.g. face paint, club colours, anthems



Territorial Behaviour:


- Football fans occupy specific areas and become extremely territorial about these


- If there is a threat to this territory, the response will be aggression

(A02) Evolutionary Explanations of Group Displays in Humans (Sports)

;) Cyril and Zampa - these two club mascots got into a fight with each other, and Zampa pulled off Cyril's head and threw it into the crowd.



:) Samoan War Dance - the Siva Tua, the traditional Samoan War Dance party was upgraded to make it more intimidating and aggressive, supporting the idea of war dances being used to intimidate opponents.



:) Frosdick & Marsh - found that although rivals taunt each other, they are careful not to engage in physical violence for the most part.



:) Marsh also found that displays of aggression can also be liberating for fans, and therefore their aggression is released harmlessly, supporting the evolutionary theory.

(A01) Evolutionary Explanations of Group Displays in Humans (Warfare)

- Warrior displays are a show of strength to intimidate opponents


- Tactical aggression also occurs in warfare to increase success and survival (e.g. mutually assured destruction)


- Successful warriors would be more likely to survive and pass on genes that are more likely to ensure survival, so warfare is genetically beneficial.

(A02) Evolutionary Explanations of Group Displays in Humans (Warfare)

:) Kelly and Dunbar - females are more attracted to risk-prone males as such behaviours are proof of good genes.



:) Steams - same



:) Kelly and Dunbar - males who are more aggressive will be better hunters and will therefore survive and pass on their genes.