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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Which of the 5 relational contexts is easiest to change?
? Situational .. I thinik
2. Why is interpersonal communication irreversible?
You Cant Unsay Something
3. What are the 4 principles of interpersonal communications?
1. Interpersonal Communication is INESCAPABLE – We cant NOT Communicate / 2. Interpersonal Communication is IRREVERSIBLE – You Cant Unsay Something / Interpersonal Communication is COMPLICATED – how many people are in a conversation – we exchange symbols – Words can be used differently in different contexts / 4. Interpersonal Communication is CONTEXTUAL – Relational, Situational, Environmental, and cultural Context.
4. Why was it once illegal for a single business to own a TV station and a newspaper in a single area?
Because then they would have a monopoly over 2 different social out-lits.
5. What was the first way to mass communicate?
Radio?
6. What are the jobs available for PR?
Corporate / Nonprofit and trade associations / Governments / Public Relations and communications agencies / Independent counsulting
7. What is media literacy?
The Ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use any form of communication.
8. What are 2 types of modern communication technology?
Newspapers / Magazines / Motion Pictures / Tv
9. What are the 2 types of farmers?
Residential Farmers – 1. Lifestyle Farmers and Retirement Farmers
10. What is it called when someone has to go in and tell the public what the speaker really meant because it was taken the wrong way?
Story Tellers
11. What (or who) are storytellers’? –
People who go and tell what the public and what the speaker really meant because it was taken the wrong way
12. True or False: The two types of residential farmers are lifestyle and retirement.
true
13. In an interpersonal communication between 2 people, how many people are said to be in the conversation?
6 people
14. What is Agricultural Public Relations?
It fosters mutually beneficial relationships / good public relations goes unnoticed / management function / involves 2 way communication / research-based / NOT PROPAGANDA.SPIN.OR HYPE
15. Athens had the first _______.
TRUE DEMOCRACY – RHTORIC TO INFLUENCE PUBLIC OPINION
16. What percent did the incomes drop by during the recession?
11%
17. True or False: Good writers can write anything.
true
18. Public Relations & Advertising are most effective when performed _________.
together
19. How many years of experience in PR is best for getting a job in an agency?
less than 5
20. What is the average salary for a job in PR?
$78,000
21. True or False: Good PR goes unnoticed.
true
22. What is the definition of communication? The
The process of sending and receiving messages
23. What does interpersonal communication focus on?
The communication between 2 or more people / assumes that all party’s are dependent on each other / can take the form of multiple contexts, groups, channels and media/ FOCUSES ON RELATIONS AND COMMUNICATION.
24. Why is interpersonal communication complicated?
It is complicated because of how many people are in a conversation. we don’t actually exchange ideas, we exhange symbols / DIFFICULT because works can be used differently in different contexts and cultures
25. Why is interpersonal communication contextual?
It is contextual because there is a psychological context, relational context, situational context, and environmental context, and cultural context
26. Why does interpersonal communication matter?
It matters because different contexts of communication require different skills, different audiences require different skills.
27. What is an example of audience fragmentation? –
Varieties = Pick, where when etc. to find news / all little audiences / narrowcasting, niche marketing or targeting.
28. Is public relations better than advertising?
Neither is better than the other
29. How many residential Farmers are there?
1.3 Million
30. What some characteristics of lifestyle farming?
Have other primary occupation / Increase by 5% 1998-2008 / 45% of farm households / larger concentrations in the southeast
31. Which came first, Agricultural PR or Advertising?
Agricultural PR
32. What is not Ag PR?
NOT PROPAGANDA / SPIN / and HYPE
• What is the marketing mix focused on?
◦ Products/services
◦ Price
◦ Promotion (advertising)
◦ Place (distribution)
33. What does SWOT stand for?
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and threats
34. What is a residential farmer?-
off-farm income
36. What is a dyad?
Interpersonal communication between somebody you know like ur friend
37. True or False: One literacy skill is understanding and respecting the media’s power.
true
38. True or False: Propaganda is a form or public relations.
false
39. True or False: Advertising pays for space.
true
40. Give two reasons why Ag Public Relations began to flourish in the 80s
Agricultural Producers were reachable / companies began to see the value of PR / (Product information , educational events , Company image as products became to be commodities , Branding )
35. Who produces the biggest percentage of farm revenues?
?
• How did PR affect revolutionary America?
o Lots of PR use
o Any publicity events?
o Any campaigns to influence public opinion?
o Examples
o Boston Tea Party
o Federalist Papers
o Common Sense
• What are the Modern Communication technologies? •
newspapers
• magazines
• motion pictures
• radio
• TV
◦ acceptance was quicker
• computer networks
41. even faster
• What are the media literacy skills? •
• make effort to understand
• understanding and respect for medias power
• distinguish emotional from reasoned responses
• develop heightend expectations of media content
• understand genre conventions and when they are being mixed
• ability to think critically about media messages, no matter how credible their sources
• knowledge of the internal language of various media and the ability to understand its effects- even if they are complex.
42. Define values-driven public relations.
public relations is a values-driven management of relationships between an organization and the publics that can affect its success
• What is one other title Ogden Publications has?
• multiple titles
◦ Mother earth news (largest) earth friendly different mindset
◦ Grit (special issues on raising poultry, making bread)
◦ Cappers
◦ Farm collector
◦ Gas engine
◦ Farm drive talk
◦ Mother earth news radio
43. Where did extension agents first give crop advice?
IRAQ
44. What carries a message to large groups of people at one time?
Mass Media
45. What is the definition of media literacy? :
Ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use any form of communication.
46. How many residential farmers were there in 2008?
? 1.3 Million
47. Is the average farm large or small?
small
48. True or False: Most farms are family owned.
true
49. Which has extended shelf life, Advertising ort Public Relations?
advertising
50. True or False: Advertising is bought space.
true
51. What is a commodity?
• A raw material or primary agricultural product that can be bought and sold, such as copper or coffee.
• A useful or valuable thing, such as water or time.
• What are the benefits of Advertising over PR?
• Advertising
◦ money = creative control on what goes into an ad
• Public relations
◦ no control over how the media presents your information or if it runs at all.
• Advertising
◦ extended shelf life
◦ you pay for it to run for a certain amount of time
◦ Why?
• Public relations
◦ one time shot
◦ why?
52. When & Where did history of Ag PR first begin?
1800BC in Iraq
53. When did Ag PR flourish?
1980's
54. True or False: Public relations is propaganda.
false
55. True or False: The highest paid jobs in PR are consultants.
true
56. Where was the first true democracy?
athens
57. What are the 5 contexts of interpersonal communication?
Relational, situational, environmental, cultural, psychological
58. True or False: The average residential farmer has 160 acres.
true
59. True or False: Advertising does not have an extended shelf life.
false
60. What are the two components of the definition of communication?
Sending and Receiving Messages
What factor defines a residential farmer?
• off-farm income
• has primarily an off-farm income (have 40hr job)
• 1.3 million of these in 2008
◦ nearly 2/3 of farmers
◦ 10% increase from 1998
◦ other farm operation held steady
61. What size farm does the typical American farmer have?
61. What size farm does the typical American farmer have?
62. Who was able to make writing available on a mass scale?
Guttenberg
63. True or False: In the past knowledge was passed down orally, through story, and through myth.
true
64. True or False: Ag PR is Hype
false
65. What big turning point in American History gave us time to read?
industrial revolution
66. What is an example of oral culture?
◦ Knowledge is passed orally
◦ memory is crucial
◦ myth and history intertwine
◦ Story tellers
67. In pre-literate culture, language meaning was _____ and _____.
Set and Local
68. True or False: Media Literacy is the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use any form of communication.
true
69. When did U.S. businesses begin using PR?
in late 1800s
70. True or False: corporations pay the most.
true
71. People who have other primary occupations are known as what kind of farmers?
life style farmers
72. True or False: Interpersonal communication is inescapable.
true
• What are the characteristics of residential farmers?
• average 160 acres (compared to 1,600 acres)
• produce 6.5% of farm revenues
• non-farm income is above $82,000 per year
◦ $7,000 in farm losses
◦ commercial farm income generally $182,000
• 30% of net worth is from off-farm sources (401k, investments, etc.)
• 10% for commercial farms
73. Why do we want to learn about interpersonal communication?
Because that mo fucker is everywhere
74. True or False: Public Relations is not free publicity.
false
75. What is the most desirable form of PR jobs?
Corporate Jobs and Consultants
76. What is the main advantage of PR over advertising?
? Its not directly from a company...you are getting it from a news media
77. Which modern technology of communication was accepted fastest?
Computer Networks
• What are some media literacy elements? •
an awareness of the impact of media
• understanding of the process of mass communications
• strategies for analyzing and discussing media messages
• an understanding of media content as a tect that provides insight into our culture and our lives
• ability to enjoy, understand and appreciate media content
◦ multiple points of access
◦ star wars
adventure
high budget hollywood filmmaking
cultural meaning of characters
• understanding of the ethical and moral obligations of media practitioners
• development of appropriate and effective production skills
78. What are the two types of Farms?
Lifestyle and Retirement
79. How many people have to be involved in interpersonal communication?
just 2
• What is rural lifestyle marketing?
living the country life
◦ homes, machinery, tractors, etc
◦ big on community
◦ highly targeted multimedia vehicles
magazine
website
40,000 opt-in subscribers
database
television
radio (33 affiliate radio stations, 39 states)
◦ partenered with Meredith Corp and Learfield Communications
◦ advertising sells well
• What is culture?
• Culture:
◦ learned behavior
◦ social group
• limits and liberates
◦ close minded??
• Defines you
• Differentiates you
• Divides us
• Unites us
80. What is the difference in the response commercial and press releases get? -
I think it is that a commercial response u can pick what is said and in the press release it can be manipulate and shit ya know?
81. During what revolution did public opinion grow more important?
Industrial
• What are differences in the early activities and the later activities in public relations?
• Early activities
◦ news releases
◦ media relations
• later
◦ educational events
◦ promotions and contests
82. When did Ag society go to industrial?
During the industrial Revolution
83. What is lit. culture?
Culture derived from Literature
• What are lifestyle farms? 1.
◦ have other primary occupation
◦ increase by 5% 1998-2008
◦ 45% of farm households
◦ larger concentrations in the southeast
84. Good PR goes ______.
UnNoticed
85. True or False: PR and advertising are NOT most effective when performed together.
false
87. True or False: Men and women earn the same salary.
false - men make more still
88. True or False: all audiences require the same skill set from the presenter
false
89. What is an easy to manipulate context of interpersonal communication?
By taking some or only certain words out of context.
92. Residential Farmers -
Hobby farms and the rural lifestyle
91. What does the environmental context of interpersonal communication refer to?
It refers to the “physical Where” / noise, temperature, chair, comfort
Communication
• Basic model is rather one sided
feedback is low
◦ Interpersonal communication goes both ways
Mass Media
Medium that carries a message to large number's of people at one time
◦ Not a lot of feedback. Mostly deferred, mostly by interference.
◦ Medium is singular, media is plural
Communication and culture
• Culture:
Culture:
◦ learned behavior
◦ social group
• limits and liberates
◦ close minded??
• Defines you
• Differentiates you
• Divides us
• Unites us
Scope of Mass Media
• Role of technology:
◦ is it the technology or how its used?
It's generally how its used.
▪ It can help build up/ break down culture
Role of Money:
haves and have not's
◦ Advertising sales
▪ cant sell adds, there wont be money made
Current Trends in general
• Concentration of ownership
◦ Fewer and fewer owners but more outlets
◦ Used to be a law that a television network could not have TV network and a paper in the same town
Convergence
TV station, magazines etc. all have websites
Globalization
• Audience Fragmentation
Varieties= pick, where when etc. to find news
◦ all little audiences
◦ narrowcasting, niche marketing or targeting.
Hyper-commercialism
fewer owners, less concern about backlash
◦ smaller towns have to worry more
Current Trends in general ALLL
Concentration of ownership

Convergence
Globalization
Audience Fragmentation
Hyper-commercialism
Writing
Meaning and language became more uniform
• long distance and long period (history) communication
• written history and myth
• Guttenberg made writing available on a mass scale
◦ humberto ecco: where monks copy books by hand
• industrial revolution gave us time to read
Media literacy elements
an awareness of the impact of media
• understanding of the process of mass communications
• strategies for analyzing and discussing media messages
• an understanding of media content as a tect that provides insight into our culture and our lives
• ability to enjoy, understand and appreciate media content
◦ multiple points of access
◦ star wars
▪ adventure
▪ high budget hollywood filmmaking
▪ cultural meaning of characters
• understanding of the ethical and moral obligations of media practitioners
• development of appropriate and effective production skills
Media literacy skills
make effort to understand
• understanding and respect for medias power
• distinguish emotional from reasoned responses
• develop heightend expectations of media content
• understand genre conventions and when they are being mixed
• ability to think critically about media messages, no matter how credible their sources
• knowledge of the internal language of various media and the ability to understand its effects- even if they are complex.
Residential Farmers

Demographics
40.8% sold products valued at less than $2,500
• 5.3% sold more than $500,000
• 85.5% owned by individual or family
Residential farmers
off-farm income
• has primarily an off-farm income (have 40hr job)
• 1.3 million of these in 2008
◦ nearly 2/3 of farmers
◦ 10% increase from 1998
◦ other farm operation held steady
Residential farmers
Characteristics
average 160 acres (compared to 1,600 acres)
• produce 6.5% of farm revenues
• non-farm income is above $82,000 per year
◦ $7,000 in farm losses
◦ commercial farm income generally $182,000
• 30% of net worth is from off-farm sources (401k, investments, etc.)
◦ 10% for commercial farms
Two Types
1. Lifestyle farmers
◦ have other primary occupation
◦ increase by 5% 1998-2008
◦ 45% of farm households
◦ larger concentrations in the southeast
2. Retirement
◦ report that they are retired
◦ 15-20% of farm households
◦ expected to increase (baby boomers)
◦ larger networth than lifestyle, but lifestyle have larger incomes
Both Residential and Retiree are more like
urban consumers
Both Residential and Retiree are more like urban consumers
• more labor and capital
• purchase few inputs
• smaller set of equipment
• non-farm collateral and cash flow essential
◦ sensitive to economic conditions on main street
• Recession did hurt
◦ incomes dropped by 11%
◦ outlook is improving
Rural lifestyle media
living the country life
◦ homes, machinery, tractors, etc
◦ big on community
◦ highly targeted multimedia vehicles
▪ magazine
▪ website
• 40,000 opt-in subscribers
▪ database
▪ television
▪ radio (33 affiliate radio stations, 39 states)
◦ partenered with Meredith Corp and Learfield Communications
◦ advertising sells well
Ogden publications
multiple titles
◦ Mother earth news (largest) earth friendly different mindset
◦ Grit (special issues on raising poultry, making bread)
◦ Cappers
◦ Farm collector
◦ Gas engine
◦ Farm drive talk
◦ Mother earth news radio
Rural lifestyle dealer
started in 2007
• rural customers accept dealers recommendations 80%
• newsletter
Rural lifestyle marketing
Broadcast group
• 82 stations, 1.9 million rural lifestyle residents
• good way to reach people in areas
Agricultural Public Relations
Carrying
steam in a basket
hat is Ag Public Relations?
fosters mutually beneficial relationships
• good public relations goes unnoticed
• management function
• involves 2-way communication
• planned activity
• research-based
• socially responsible
Common thread
relationship management
Research
planning
communication
evaluavation
research
◦ focus groups, surveys, SWOTs
▪ strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats (SWOT)
• Planning
◦ strategy
• Communication
◦ execute: actually doing what we need to do
• Evaluation
◦ how well did it work? Did it meet goals?
PR skill set is
very useful
PR practitioners
PR Agencies
◦ corporations
◦ government
◦ non-profit organizations or trade associations
◦ independent PR consultants
Growth of institutions
big companies needed PR
◦ people feared centralized power
◦ university of michigan began promoting itself in 1897
◦ need for communication in general increased
Ag PR began to flourish here-1980s
◦ agricultural producers were reachable
◦ companies began to see value of PR
▪ product information
▪ educational events
▪ company image as products became to be commodities
▪ branding
• Early activities
◦ news releases
◦ media relations
• later
◦ educational events
◦ promotions and contests
Jobs in AG.PR

• Duties
managers
▪ oversee programs, projects, staffs
▪ plan, strategy
◦ technicians
▪ execute
▪ implement
• time entry for both
• deadlines
Jobs in Ag Public Relations
• Salaries
◦ overall average $50,000-$99,000 (2005 PRSA Survey) Mean is $78,000
◦ less than 5 years in the field- $49,950
▪ $30,000 starting salary
◦ Highest paid are consultants ($160,000)
◦ Corporations pay the most
◦ Men still make more
◦ public relations is not very family friendly
Preparing for jobs in Ag PR
• Writing is a critical skill
Writing is a critical skill
◦ good writers can write anything
◦ Opportunities to work successfully in teams of all types
◦ Experience is a plus
◦ agencies usually do not hire students straight out of college unless they have significant experience
Team effort
• PR and Advertising are most effective when performed together
• Marketing mix focuses on:
Products/services
◦ Price
◦ Promotion (advertising)
◦ Place (distribution)
• PR is involved in all steps
• Successful advertising usually follows effective PR
Paid Space or Free Coverage
• Advertising
◦ pays for ad space (in broadcasting its time)
◦ Benefits?
▪ Can say its yours
• Public Relations
◦ Free publicity
▪ News conferences
▪ Press releases
▪ Charity events
▪ etc.
Creative Control vs. No Control
• Advertising
◦ money = creative control on what goes into an ad
• Public relations
◦ no control over how the media presents your information or if it runs at all.
◦ Trading money for control.
Shelf Life
Advertising
◦ extended shelf life
◦ you pay for it to run for a certain amount of time
◦ Why?
• Public relations
◦ one time shot
◦ why?
Wise Consumers
• Advertising:
◦ if somethings in an ad, you know they're trying to sell you something
◦ so what is the advantage of PR?
▪ Its not directly from a company...you are getting it from a news media
• PR messages
◦ 3rd party article
◦ no money involved
◦ you are getting the benefit of the 3rd party
◦ because the 3rd party talks about it, the people are more likely to find it credible. It works.
Creativity or a nose for news
• Advertising
◦ Exercise creativity
◦ Room to be edgy
• PR
◦ Generate buzz within the news
◦ Ability to determine what is news and how to get coverage
In-House or Out on the Town
Advertising
◦ in ad agencies primary contacts are
▪ Co-workers
▪ Agency clients
• PR
◦ Co-workers
◦ Agency clients
◦ Media relations***
▪ Must build relationships with media people in every outlet from print to broadcast.
Team effort
PR and Advertising are most effective when performed together
• Marketing mix focuses on:
◦ Products/services
◦ Price
◦ Promotion (advertising)
◦ Place (distribution)
• PR is involved in all steps
• Successful advertising usually follows effective PR
Paid Space or Free Coverage
Advertising
◦ pays for ad space (in broadcasting its time)
◦ Benefits?
▪ Can say its yours
• Public Relations
◦ Free publicity
▪ News conferences
▪ Press releases
▪ Charity events
▪ etc.