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10 Cards in this Set

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Veiel's meta-analysis of cognition in depression found three levels of effect in terms of impairment. What cognitive domains were

Low:
Medium:
High:

?
Three levels of effect

Low: attention and concentration

Moderate: visuo-motor tracking, visual/spatial
functions and verbal fluency

High: mental flexibility and control and composite
indicators of brain impairment
___% of patients with major depression will score two or more SDs below normals on the TMT(B) or the Colour-word from of the Stroop as well as on composite indicators (e.g. pathognomonic indicator of LNRB)
50%

15% will score in this range on tests of
memory, visuomotor tracking/scanning, visual
spatial functions and verbal fluency
Simple attention in depression compared to normals?
Same.
Both the severity and the profile of cognitive deficiencies in depression are postulated to be similar to those seen in _________ ___________ ___________ ___________ _________.
Both the severity and the profile of cognitive deficiencies in depression are postulated to be similar to those seen in moderately severe traumatic brain injury.
Is depression a hemispheric disorder?
No clear consensus.

- Traumatic frontal lobe injuries indicate a high
correlation between affective disturbances and
right frontal lobe

- Stroke studies indicate that left-sided lesions are
more likely to result in depressive symptoms

- In states of pathological laughing and crying:
crying is more common with left-sided lesions
while laughter more common in right-sided lesions

- Temporal lobe epilepsy, no consensus

-Cutting (1990) no conclusive results; newer PET
evidence goes both ways
Reasons to deferentially diagnose depression.

If depressed "functional"?
- Better to treat actual condition if treatable; get
it right!
- Trajectory and outcome vastly different
Reasons to deferentially diagnose depression.

If depressed "organic"?
- Treatment can alleviate some cognitive impairment, even though the underlying condition
may not be affected (although ECT and anti-
cholinergic effects may exacerbate)

- Severity of the underlying depression may have an effect on the level of cognitive impairment
Reversibility of the deficits in depression:

What happens when depressed person becomes euthymic in terms of memory function?
Memory deficits in depression appear to disappear.
Following ECT

IQ =
Disparity between VIQ and PIQ?
Sackheim et al (1992) 100 depressed and 50
controls; matched for VIQ, but depressed had
significant deficits in PIQ. After ECT IQ
improved but the disparity between VIQ and PIQ
remained
What happens to Stroop, PIQ and visual/constructional abilities following depression treatment?
Trichard et al (1995) deficits in Stroop, PIQ and
visual/constructional tasks PERSIST after treatment.

?Two types of depression; one irreversible one
not?