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17 Cards in this Set

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3 Levels of Dietary Asessment

-Individual Level


-Household Level


- Nationwide level

2 Purposes of Dietary Assessment

-to identify individuals or population groups who may be at risk of becoming malnourished (which is more than a lack of nutrition)

3 Most Frequent Dietary Assessment Methods

-24 hour dietary recalls


-food frequency questionnaires


-food records


24-Hour Dietary Recalls

-Gold Standard: USDA Automated Multiple Pass method


advantages: low respondent burden, doesn't affect eating behavior, quantified intake


disadvantages: intake often underreported, expensive because everyone talks to trained dieticians on the phone so it takes up to 45 min of professional time per person

USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method

-Gold standard of 24hr dietary recalls


FIVE STAGES


1) Quick list


2) Forgotten Foods


3) Time & Occasion


4) Detail Pass (probes for questions like portion size and preparation methods)


5) Final Review with 1/1 contact on the phone

ASA24 Automated Self-Administered Recall

free web-based tool, uses modified versions of USDAs multiple-pass method


-prompt on computer screen


PROCESS


1) Meal-Based Quick List


2) Meal Gap Review


3) Details


4) Forgotten foods


5) Final Review


6) Last Chance


7) Usual Intake


8) Supplement Module

Food Frequency Questionnares

-asks respondents to report usual frequency of consumption of each food from list of foods (w portion size estimates)


-nutrient intake estimates derived by summing products of reported frequency of each food by amount of nutrient specified in that food


ADVANTAGES


-usual intake & info on overall diet obtained, low investigator cost, doesn't affect eating behavior


DISADVANTAGES


-not quantifiably precise


-difficult cognitive task for respondent


-intake often misreported

FOOD RECORDS

-respondent records all foods and beverages and amounts of each consumed over one or more days (3-4 days max)


- amounts consumed can be measured or not (which is a disadvantage bc its not quantifiable)


-some let you take pictures of foods and it uploads them as food photographs


ADVANTAGES


-intake quantified, could enhance self-monitoring of food intake, doesn't require recall of foods eaten


DISADVANTAGES


-high burden & strenuous the longer it has to be done, and doesn't require recall of foods eaten


-


Best Dietary Assessment for Different Types of Studies

WHAT TO DO WITH DATA ONCE YOU'VE COLLECTED IT?

ANALYZE--> PRESENT (using standard comparisons like DRI & comparison 2 national average)--> INTERPRET (interpretation of data depends on assessment method and nutrients being studied,) and study type, and accuracy of subject responses (data validity)

IMPORTANT FACTOR OF COMPUTER-BASED ANALYSIS OF DIETARY DATA

1) Update database


2) Number & types of foods available


3)Ability to add foods and nutrients


4) Ease of data entry and analysis


5) Nutrients available


6) Handling of missing nutrient values


CHILDREN HABITUAL FV INTAKE IN RELATION TO THE RECOMMENDATIONS (For fruits and veggies)

-fruits: 2.7 +- 0.4 SD (41% met RDA)


-Veggies: 3.4 +- 0.5 SD (39% met RDA)

HEI (Healthy Eating Index)


Designed to reflect a healthy diet


-Healthy Eating Index


- measures total fruit, whole fruit, total veggie, dark green veggies, orange veggies, legumes, whole grains, milk, meats/ beans, saturated fats, oils, sodium

EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)

EAR: Estimated Average Requirement--> average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half of the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group

RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance)

the average daily nutrient intake level required to meet the nutrient requirement of 98% of healthy individuals

Adequate Intake

Recommended average daily intake observed or experimentally determined of apparently healthy groups of people that are assumed to be accurate--> used when an RDA can't be established

Externally Independent Measures of Data Intake

- double-labeled water (total energy intake)


- equations for estimated energy requirement (IOM)


-Fatty acid patterns (fatty acid intake)


-serum carotenoids & Vitamin C (fruit and veggie intake)


-Urinary nitrogen (protein intake)