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72 Cards in this Set

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How do frequency, wavelength, and energy change as you pass from one end of the electromagnetic spectrum to the other?

As you pass from radio to gamma waves...
-frequency increases
-wavelength decreases
-energy increases
What is the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and velocity?
Velocity (c) = wavelength (lambda) x frequency (nu)
What is wavelength? (lambda)
The distance between adjacent crests of a wave. (m)
What is frequency? (v)
The number of complete waves that pass a point per second. (Hz)
What is wave number? (nubar)
The reciprocal of the wavelength, the number of waves per metre.
How can electromagnetic radiation be described in terms of structure?
As a stream of very small particles - packets of energy called photons.
How is the energy of a photon calculated? A mole of photons?
Energy of photon = Planck's constant x frequency (E = hv)

Energy of a mole of photons = (Avogadro's constant x Planck's constant x velocity) / wavelength (E = (Lhc / lambda)
What is Planck's constant?
6.63 x 10^-34 JHz^-1
What is Avogadro's constant?
6.02 x 10^23 mol^-1
What is spectroscopy?
The study of how light and matter interact.
What happens when electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter?
There is a transferral of energy.
What are emission / absorption spectra?
Individual elements have characteristic emission and absorption spectra that can be used for identification. Both involve the transition of electrons between energy levels. Emission concerns when an electron moves to a state of lower energy, emitting photons, and absorption concerns when an electron moves to a state of higher energy by absorbing photons.
How is emission spectroscopy utilised?
Light passed through an element can be passed through a grating to create a line spectrum that shows up as a characteristic number of discrete wavelengths. This is not a continuous spectrum as the particles can only emit specific frequencies which correspond to transitions of electrons from higher to lower energy levels.
How is absorption spectroscopy utilised?
White light passed through a sample of ground state particles will show black lines in an otherwise continuous spectrum. These correspond to the light that has been absorbed by the atoms in the sample (and also correspond to the coloured lines which would be produced in the emission spectrum of that element)
What are quanta?
Small, fixed amounts of energy that can be transferred between levels.
What causes emission spectra?
When excited particles return to the ground state by the movement of electrons to lower energy levels. The frequency of the line in the emission spectrum corresponds to the difference in energy between the two levels.
What is the convergence limit?
The further the rings are away from the nucleus, the higher the energy. As energy increases the levels become closer together until they converge. The convergence point corresponds to the ionisation energy.
What are the Balmer and Lyman series?
Excited electrons in the Lyman series fall to the n = 1 energy level and lines are produced in the UV region.
Excited electrons in the Balmer series fall to the n = 2 energy level and lines are produced in the visible region.
What are the quantum numbers?
Principle number (n)
Angular moment (l)
Spin quantum number (ms)
Magnetic moment (ml)
What is the principle quantum number? (n)
Each shell in an electron is numbered, with n = 1 being the one closest to the nucleus.
What is the angular moment? (l)
Gives the shape of the orbital. All s orbitals are spherical and all p orbitals are dumbbell shaped.
l = 0 in s orbitals
l = 1 in p orbitals
l = 2 in d orbitals
l = 3 in f orbitals
What is the magnetic moment? (ms)
Refers to the orientation in space of the orbital. Related to l in that it can take on any integer value from -l to +l.
What is the spin quantum number? (ml)
Determines the direction of spin.
What is the Heisenburg uncertainty principle?
It is impossible to define with absolute precision, simultaneously, both the position and momentum of an electron.
What is the Pauli exclusion principle?
No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.
What is the Aufbau principle?
Electrons fill orbitals in order of increasing energy.
What is Hund's rule?
When degenerate orbitals are available, electrons fill each orbital singly and with parallel spins before pairing up.
What is the order of subshells? (Energy)
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s ...
How many electrons can be held in each type of subshell?
s = 2
p = 6
d = 10
f = 14
What are transition metals in terms of electron configuration?
Those which have an incomplete d subshell in at least one of their ions.
What is the oxidation state?
Same as the value of the charge on an atom or ion.
What is the oxidation state of oxygen?
-2 except in hydrogen peroxide where it is -1
What is the oxidation state of hydrogen?
+1 except in the hydrides where is it -1.
What is electro negativity?
The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
What are the intramolecular forces?
Ionic and covalent bonds.
What are covalent bonds?
Shared pair of electrons found in the region of overlapping atomic orbitals.

What is the molar bond enthalpy?

The energy required to break one mole of chemical bonds to form atoms.

What are polar molecules?
Asymmetrical molecules that exhibit polar bonding, causing a permanent dipole.
What are the intermolecular forces?
Hydrogen bonding
Permanent dipole dipole interactions
Van der Waal's forces
What are Van der Waal's forces?
The temporary separations of charge that attract one non polar molecule to another.
What is hydrogen bonding?
Strong attractive forces between H and O, N or F.
What are cations and anions?
Cation - positive ion
Anion - negative ion
What is the coordination number?
The number of nearest neighbours to a particular ion.

How does ratio of radius indicate structure?

Approx 0.5 ratio indicates a face centred cubic arrangement such as in NaCl, 6:6.

Approx 1 ratio indicates a body centred cubic structure such as in CsCl, 8:8.

What is hybridisation?
The combining of two or more orbitals of nearly equal energy within the same atom into orbitals of equal energy.
Why are metals good conductors?
Because of their mobile delocalised electrons in the metallic lattice. Some metals are better conductors than others due to their low resistance to flow of electrons.
What are superconductors?
Materials that conducts electricity with no resistance and thus no loss of energy.
Which metals act as superconductors at low temperatures?
Mercury, copper, lead, tin and silver.

How does resistance vary with temperature?

As temperature increases...

The resistance in a superconductor increases.

The resistance in a semiconductor decreases.

What is the Meissner effect?
Electrical resistance is thought to decrease because the delocalised electrons pair up within the metallic lattice, resulting in the substance being diamagnetic (repels a magnetic field).
How can superconductors be used?
The Meissner effect can be utilised in MRI scans and frictionless transport. The low electrical resistance allows efficient power transmission and fast electronic processing.
What are the metalloids?
Semiconductors, for example silicon and germanium.
How does conductivity in metals and metalloids vary with temperature?


How can conductivity in semiconductors be increased?
Increased temperature and exposure to light.
How do the bands in semiconductors work?
In semiconductors the atomic orbitals group into bands. The valence band in a semiconductor is either empty or full and the electrons cannot move. When electrons are excited, they move into a higher band called the conduction band and this movement of electrons allows conduction to occur. In semiconductors the band gap between these bands is relatively small. In insulators it is large and in conductors the bands overlap.
What is doping?
The addition of small numbers of atoms with different numbers of valence electrons.
What are n type semiconductors?
Created by the addition of a group 5 dopant. The extra electron occupies the conduction band and carries the charge.
What are p type semiconductors?
Made through the addition of a group 3 dopant. Creates positive holes in the semiconductor which carry the charge.
What is a p-n junction?
The juxtaposition of p and n type semiconductor that results in electrons moving from the n to the p type material, creating a separation of charge and preventing further movement of electrons.
What happens in a photovoltaic cell?
When a p-n junction is irradiated with light, electrons migrate towards the n type semiconductor and the holes migrate towards the p type semiconductor. If the upper and lower layers are connected via an external circuit then the electrons flow from n to p to restore the balance of charge.
What does amphoteric mean?
Has both acidic and basic properties.
What is a dative covalent bond?
A covalent bond in which one of the atoms provides both the electrons that form the bond.
Name amphoteric oxides.
Al2O3, H2O, BeO

What are the bonding structure and properties of oxides across the period?

Bonding structure is ionic lattice until SiO2 which is covalent network. Those following are covalent molecular.

Basic on left until Al2O3, which is amphoteric, then acidic after.

How do ionic and covalent chlorides react with water?

Ionic - dissolve with no reaction
Covalent - fumes of HCl given off

What are the bonding structures and properties of chlorides across the period?

Ionic lattice until AlCl3, which is covalent molecular, and all following are also covalent molecular.

Soluble in water until AlCl3, at which point all following produce white fumes of HCl. Cl2 itself just dissolves to form an acidic solution.

What are the bonding structures and properties of hydrides across the period?

Bonding structure: NaH is an ionic lattice, MgH2 is an intermediate between ionic and covalent, AlH3 is polymeric, and all following are covalent molecular.

Goes from alkaline, to neutral at SiH4, to acidic. PH3 is insoluble.

How does the hydride ion act?
Acts as a reducing agent and a strong base and will remove a hydrogen ion from a water molecule.
What are ligands?
Molecules or ions in a complex that surround the central metal ion that attach to the central ion with dative covalent bonds.

Why does nitrogen have a higher first ionisation energy than oxygen?

Because nitrogen has a half filled p sub shell.

Why can the wavelengths that ligands absorb change when the ligand changes?

Different ligand field strength.

How can you find the coordination number of a compound?

Divide the radius of the positive ion by the radius of the negative ion. If the value is close to one, it should be 8:8. If it is close to 0.5, it should be 6:6.