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32 Cards in this Set

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Ultrasound when can we visualize adrenal gland

In babies

To triangular shaped retroperitoneal endocrine Glands are

Adrenal glands

Adrenal glands are covered by what what coverings

Gerotas fascia and embedded by far , covered by capsule

Location for Adrenal glands

Anterior, superior and medial to each of the kidneys

What are the two portions of the Adrenal glands

Cortex and medulla

Outer portion of gland and makes up 80% of the gland that appears Hypoechoic(isoechoic to liver/ spleen)

Adrenal cortex

Central portion of gland that appears echogenic on ultrasound

Medulla

What is the right adrenal gland located

Between the right lobe of the liver, IVC and right kidney

Shapes of adrenal glands

Triangular or pyramidal (y or v ) shape

Landmarks for left adrenal gland

Yorida, spleen, left kidney and left crus of the diaphragm

Left adrenal shape is

Semilunar

What produces the cortisol and aldosterone (responsible for amount of sodium and water in the body)

Adrenal cortex

What Produces two hormones (catecholamines) epinephrine and norepinephrine

Adrenal medulla

Large adrenal masses displaces the upper pole of the kidney

Caudally and laterally

Excessive secretion of aldosterone (from cortex)

Conns syndrome

What is responsible for regulating blood pressure by controlling the amount of sodium and water in body

Aldosterone

Sign and symptoms for Conns syndrome

Hypertension , excessive thirst , high levels of sodium (hyperatremia) and low levels of potassium ( hypokalemia)

Hyper function of adrenal glands(cortisol) because of adrenal tumor or hyperplasia

Cushing syndrome

Cortisol plays an important role in

Metabolism, blood pressure regulation, Obesity, hypertension,hirutism hyperglycemia and severe fatigue

Bilateral hemorrhage into the adrenal glands particularly stressed neonates

Waterhouse friderichsen

Pheochromocytomas associated with

MENS syndrome

Most common malignant mass in children it appears as a solid large heterogeneous mass that typically contains calcification and can spread around to the IVC and aorta

Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma malignant tumor where

Adrenal glands

Lab values for Waterhouse friderichsen

Decrease hematocrit value and blood pressure

Either hyperfunctioning or non-hyperfunctioning an ultrasound appearance is a hypoechoic mass everyone

Adrenal adenoma

Where in adults but very common in neonates (the most common neonatal adrenal abnormality ) and is associated with Waterhouse friderichsen

Adrenal hemorrhage

Difficult delivery and hypoxia a delivery can predispose The Neo Nate to

Adrenal hemorrhage

Lab value for Adrenal hemorrhage

Drop in hematocrit and blood pressure

Ultrasound appearance for Adrenal hemorrhage

Depends on the age of the hemorrhage

Arises from the adrenal Medulla causes uncontrollable hypertension, headaches, tachycardia, tremors, Anxeity and excessive sweating

Pheochromocytomas (from medulla of adrenal gland )

Pheochromocytomas originates from

Medullary torsion

Ultrasound appearance for Pheochromocytomas

Hypoechoic mass with a weak posterior enhancement, well encapsulated and highly vascular