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145 Cards in this Set

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In young puppies what acoustic window to the brain can be used up to approximately 1 month of age?
The bregmatic fontanelle
A kittens brain can be imaged through the fontanelle up to which age?
5 months
On transverse sonographic images of the brainwhat structures form an umbrella-like structure?
the longitudinal fissure and splenial sulci
What is the echogenicity of the caudate nuclei?
Hyperechoic curved structures
On transverse sonographic images of the brain where does the choroid plexus lie?
Lies on the floor the central portion of the lateral ventricle and the roof of the temporal horn) is hyperechoic)
What is the shape of ventricles in kittens?
Slit like
In dogs the internal carotid artery enters the cranial vault and divides into which vessels?
The rostral cerebral. Middle cerebral. Caudal communicating artery.
Which vessels unite to form the basilar artery?
the vertebral arteries
The basilar artery enters the brain caudally and divides into which vessels?
The right and left caudal communicating arteries
Houde’s cat brain vasculature differ from dogs?
Terminal extracranial portion of the internal carotid artery is regressed
In dogs and cars the ascending pharyngeal artery arises from which vessel?
The external carotid artery
In cats what artery is a major source of blood to the brain?
The ascending pharyngeal artery
Hydrocephalus is common in which breeds?
To a breed dogs
What is a common sign of hydrocephalus?
May have persistent fontanelles
What is the cause of acquired hydrocephalus?
Obstruction at various locations in the ventricular system
What can cause nonobstructive hydrocephalus?
Interference with absorption of CSF from the subarachnoid space into the venous system
What is the echogenicity of most brain neoplasms and animals?
hyperechoic to the adjacent normal brain
What is the appearance of abscess sedation in the brain?
A cavitary and hypoechoic lesion containing swirling cellular material compressing the surrounding parenchyma
What is the sonographic appearance of a granuloma of the brain parenchyma?
A well marginated hyperechoic lesion
What is the echogenicity of bleeding into the brain when seen immediately?
Hypoechoic
Houde does the echogenicity of bleeding into the brain change over time?
Erythrocyte aggregation causes a lesion to become hyperechoic. As the clot breaks down anechoic or hypoechoic areas may be seen
Arachnoid cyst are most commonly seen where?
in the quadrigeminal cistern
What is the appearance of a arachnoid cysts of the quadrigeminal cistern?
A well-defined anechoic mass between the caudal aspect of the cerebral hemispheres
In the case of a quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst where will the midbrain be found?
Ventral to the cyst and the cerebellum will be caudal
What is a term for the condition where the cerebral hemispheres are almost obliquely absent or absent?
Hydranencephaly
In dogs what condition is suspected if there is lateral separation of the rostral horns and bodies of the lateral ventricles with enlargement and dorsal displacement of the third ventricle?
Agenesis of the corpus callosum
Chiari-type 1 malformations of the Maltese Cavalier King Charles are usually associated with anomalies of what?
The first cervical vertebrae and skull
What reported clinical signs been seen and a Boston terrier with Dandy-Walker like syndrome?
Ataxia. Rolling. Intention tremors.
What are the sonographic findings of Dandy-Walker like syndrome?
Aplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Confluence of the lateral ventricles. Enlargement of the third and lateral ventricles. Cystic lesions within the cerebellum
Bladder some causes of cerebral cortico-hypoplasia?
Inherited abnormalities. Tox and. In utero infections. Vascular insults
Cerebellar hypoplasia due to abnormal development can be caused by what type of viral infection?
pan leukopenia (feline parvovirus)
When his ultrasonography of the spinal cord usually performed?
Only during surgical laminectomies. Corpectomy. Foraminotomy.
When using a ventral transabdominal approach for sonography of the spinal cord where can the cord be seen?
Only at the disc space
What is perhaps most common use the spinal cord sonography?
Intraoperatively to evaluate whether all disc material has been removed from the spinal canal during laminectomy or ventral slot
What is echogenicity of the spinal cord?
Hypoechoic
What is the echogenicity of the meninges?
Hyperechoic
The spinal cord is supplied by which vessels?
The ventral and dorsal branches of spinal arteries that originate from vertebral thoracic vertebral and lumbar arteries
What is the echogenicity of disc material to the spinal cord parenchyma?
Hyperechoic
Herniated disc material may appear how?
Amorphous bright material with irregular margins
What is the echogenicity of hemorrhage within the spinal cord?
Hyperechoic
What is the appearance of traumatic hematomas in the vertebral canal?
amorphous inhomogenous an irregularly marginated
What is the appearance of neoplasia of the spinal cord?
Nonspecific and varies in echogenicity and uniformity
What is a term for dilation of the central canal within ependymal lining?
Hydromyelia
What is a term for cavitation within the spinal cord lacking and ependymal lining?
syrinx
What is a term for the combination of hydromyelia and syrinx?
Syringomyelia
In which condition is syringomyelia mainly described?
Chiari type I like malformation
What other processes can lead to syringomyelia?
Trauma. Neoplasia. Intracranial epidermoid cyst. Arachnoiditis
In all cases syringo-my daily is thought to occur as a consequence of what?
Altered CSF dynamics
What condition may also occur concurrently with syringomyelia increasing the spinal cord echogenicity?
concurrent myelomalacia
What condition seen in a Manx cat involves tethering of the spinal cord?
Meningocele
What is the sonographic appearance of disco spondylitis?
Visualization of a partial or complete loss of fiber organization of the discs
In longitudinal section what is the sonographic appearance of nerves?
Tubular hypoechoic structures with linear echogenic walls
Which is brighter the walls of nerves or of vessels?
The walls of nerves are brighter and better defined
What is the sonographic appearance of nerves in transverse section?
Circular or oval hypoechoic structures
What is the sonographic appearance of a nerve with demyelinization without rupture?
The nerve is poorly visualized distal to the site of injury
What is 3 sonographic description of nerve sheath tumor in the brachial plexus?
Hypoechoic tubular structures or as fusiform masses exhibiting mixed echogenicity
A tumor of the brachial plexuses can usually be visualized by ultrasound if they exceed what size?
5 mm
In dogs and cats the liver is composed of how many lobes?

Four. Right lobe. Left lobe. Caudate lobe. Quadrate lobe

Name the two processes of the caudate lobe?

Caudate and papillary processes

Which lobe of the liver forms a third to nearly a half of the entire liver mass?

The left lobe

Which lobe is relatively central and partially encircle the gallbladder?

Quadrate lobe

Which lobe is the most caudal extension of the liver on the right side?

The caudate lobe

What is the thickness of the gallbladder wall in cats and dogs?

Cats 1 mm thick. Dogs less than 2-3 mm

In normal dogs and cats the common bile duct is how wide?

Dogs 3 mm wide. Cats 4mm wide.

Where does the cystic duct enters the duodenum?

At the major duodenal papilla

The portal vein supplies what percentage of afferent vascular flow to the liver?

80%

Where do the hepatic veins lead to?

the caudal vena cava

What is the sonographic appearance of the portal veins?

Hyperechoic

What is the normal portal vein-aorta ratios?

0.71-1.25 in dogs and cats

The confluence of which vessels form the main portal vein?

The cranial and caudal mesenteric veins and splenic vein.

The portal vein receives a small tributary from which vein?

The gastroduodenal vein

What are the mean portal flow velocities in dogs and cats?

dogs 15 +-3 to 18 +-8. Cats 10-8cm/s

Hepatic lipidosis and steroid hepatopathies are usually associated with what type of diffuse change in parenchymal echogenicity and hepatomegaly?

Increased echogenicity

In cats cholangiohepatitis is most commonly associated with what type of change in parenchymal echogenicity?

A decrease in echogenicity and increased visibility of the portal vasculature

In dogs acute hepatitis has seen with leptospirosis tends to cause what type of diffuse liver change?

Hypoechogenicity

Chronic hepatitis is typically associated with an increased echogenicity due to what ?

fibrosis

What is a typical appearance of cirrhosis of the liver?

The liver is small hyperechoic and irregular and contour

What is the appearance of lymphoma of the liver?

May not be detectable or cause diffuse parenchymal hypoechogenicity hyperechogenicity or mixed with or without hypoechoic nodules

What is the common appearance of histiocytic neoplasms of the liver?

Hypoechoic nodules or masses although diffuse hepatic hypoechogenicity has been reported

Which hepatic neoplasia tends to cause diffuse hyperechogenicity?

Mast cell infiltration

What is a common presentation of hepatic carcinoma?

A mixed pattern of echogenicity

Amyloidosis primarily affects which breeds?

har-pei , Abyssinian & Siamese cats

What is the sonographic appearance of amyloidosis and cats?

Liver tends to become diffusely heterogenous with mixed hyperechoic and hypoechoic foci

In dogs a liver that is highly hyperechoic with diffusely distributed 0.5-1.5 cm hypoechoic regions producing a honeycomb appearance is consistent with what finding?

Hepato-cutaneous syndrome (superficial necrolytic dermatitis)

What is the common appearance of benign nodular hyperplasia of the liver?

Hypoechoic nodules measuring less than 5-15 mm wide

What is a target lesion?

Focal hypoechoic lesion with a hyperechoic center commonly associated with metastasis (although can be benign)

The finding of at least one target lesion in the liver are spleen has a positive predictive value of how much for malignancy in small animals?

74%

What other finding is also consistent with neoplasms of round cell origin of the liver?

Significant hepatic lymphadenopathy

In which species are cystic or cavitary tumors more common?

Cats

What is the appearance of a hepatic abscess (uncommon in dogs and cats)?

Round oval regular or irregular hypoechoic lesions that are often cavitated

What type the disease can cause hepatic granuloma or pyogranulomas in dogs and cats?

A fungal disease (also FIP)

In people granulomas tend to have which echogenicity?

Hyperechogenicity

In which direction does dilation occur after complete obstruction of the common bile duct ?

retrograde that initially affects the common bile duct and gallbladder followed by the extra hepatic ducts and intrahepatic ducts.

In cats a common bile duct wider then what value is usually predictive of obstruction?

More than 4 mm wide

What condition is often responsible for common bile duct obstruction particularly in dogs?

pancreatitis because of edema inflammation and fibrosis.

The double rim pattern of the gallbladder is often seen with which condition?

Gallbladder wall edema

What are common signs of cholecystitis?

Thickening of the common bile duct wall and luminal dilation.

What is the sonographic appearance of a gallbladder polyp?
A pedunculated echogenic mass protruding into the gallbladder lumen
Gallbladder mucoceles are recognized in which type of dogs?
Older dogs of small and medium-sized breeds
What is the common description for the sonographic appearance of a mucocele?
A stellate pattern initially followed by the appearance of the mobile hyperechoic radiating striations leading to the kiwi fruit pattern
A discontinuity in the gallbladder wall may be a sonographic sign of what condition?
All bladder rupture (along with the presence of hyperechoic fact)
Choleliths are often incidental but may dictated an underlying consecutive telemetry process and which feces?
cats
What is the general description of a portosystemic shunt?
A vascular anomaly connecting the portal system to the systemic circulation through the caudal vena cava or azygos vein
Are congenital portosystemic shunts typically single or multiple?
Single
What is the most common type of portosystemic shunt in small debris dogs and cats?
Extrahepatic PSS arising from the main portal vein or a tributary
Where do portal caval shunts typically terminate?
In the caudal vena cava cranial to the right renal vein
What is the common direction of a portal azygos shunt?
Typically dives cranial dorsally in the direction of the aortic hiatus after originating from one of the portal branches
What type of portosystemic shunt is prevalent in large breed dogs?
intrahepatic
R the 3 morphologic forms of an intrahepatic shunt?
Left additional. Right divisional. Central divisional.
What is most common form of an intrahepatic shunt?
Left divisional caused by a patent ductus venosus
What is a common appearance of a left divisional shunt?
A large tortuous vessel originating from the intrahepatic portal vein curving to the left portion of the liver before entering the caudal vena cava
What is the appearance of a Central divisional shunt question mark
presents as a window type shunt between a closely aligned intrahepatic portal vein and caudal vena cava. The portal vein is commonly dilated at the site of the foramen
A PV-aorta ratios of ≤ 0.65 predicts the presence of what type of shunt?
Extrahepatic (ratio of ≥ 8 excludes a shunt)
What other signs are commonly present with PSS?
Renomegaly and urolithiasis
Chronic liver disease or infiltrative neoplasia can have what effect on portal vein compliance?
Reduce portal vein compliance and increased pressure
Portal hypertension is suspected within the portal flow is reduced to what level?
Velocity < 10 cm/second
Portal vein thrombosis can result from what 3 conditions?
Hypercoagulable state. Vascular stasis. Damage to the vascular endothelium
Hepatic venous congestion is more commonly caused by what condition?
Right-sided heart insufficiency
What is the sonographic appearance of hepatic congestion?
The caudal vena cava and hepatic veins are dilated and the liver is typically enlarged and hypoechoic
Splenic arteries are usually not seen on ultrasound. True or false?
True
In cats folding of the spleen upon itself indicates what?
Splenic enlargement
In dog splenomegaly with normal echogenicity is a common finding after sedation with what drug?
Acepromazine
A diffusely lacey hypoechoic echotexture of the spleen is commonly seen in which condition?
Splenic torsion also seen with extensive venous thrombosis
A spotted echotexture of the spleen with multiple small hypoechoic nodules is highly suggestive of what disease?
Lymphoma (although it can be seen in benign and other malignant conditions)
What is a sonographic sign of a splenic mass?
deformation of the splenic border
According to a recent publication which are more common benign splenic masses or malignant masses in the dog?
Benign splenic mass lesions are more common
What type a splenic lesion is more commonly associated with malignant processes such as metastasis?
Target lesions
What is the sonographic appearance of a splenic infarction?
The affected area is hypoechoic sharply demarcated and shows decreased or absent blood flow
What condition is suspected when there is progressive enlargement of the spleen with decreased absent blood flow?
Splenic torsion
What is the typical number of peristaltic contractions in the dog?
4-5 contractions per minute
With section of the canine small intestine is thicker?
The duodenum
In cats what is the difference of the thickness between the duodenum and the jejunum?
There is no difference
What is the ultrasound appearance of a trichobezoar in a cat?

irregular bright interfaces was strong uniform clean acoustic shadow

What is most common ultrasound finding of inflammatory bowel disease?
wall thickening
What is the usual characterization of bowel inflammation?
Stents of an symmetrical wall thickening with preserved layers
What is the ultrasound appearance of the gastric ulcer?
Discrete mucosal defects outlined by hyperechoic microbubbles accumulated at the crater site
Gastric wall edema is commonly associated with what other 2 conditions?
Underlying inflammation and ulceration
What are the common ultrasound features of uremic gastritis?
Thickened gastric wall prominent rugal folds mineralization of the mucosa
Linear hyperechoic lines within the intestinal mucosa and aligned perpendicular to the lumen axis most likely represents what condition?
Dilated lacteals commonly associated with PTL or lymphangiectasia occasionally associated with infiltrative tumors
What is the sonographic appearance of the intestinal wall with perforation question mark
effective wall is thickened and hypoechoic with local loss of layering
What of the common findings of GI lymphoma?
Transmural thickening with diffuse loss of all layering reduce wall echogenicity decreased motility regional lymphadenopathy
What is a most common ultrasonographic finding and gastric carcinoma question mark
wall transmural thickening that is associated with altered wall layering. Layering appears as a moderately echogenic zone surrounded by outer and inner poorly echogenic lines
What is meant by the term pseudo-layering question mark
pseudo-layering most likely correlates with the unevenly layered tumor distribution noted histopathologically and is sonographic finding is suggestive of gastric carcinoma
What is the difference in lesion length of between intestinal carcinoma and intestinal lymphoma?
Gastric carcinomas have a shorter lesion length
What type of GI lesion is suspected with a large (over 3 cm) intermural lesion growing out of the serosa?
Leiomyosarcoma