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570 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
abandon
to leave forever, or to stop something in progress
abstract
a written summary of the important points of a text
academic
relating to school, college, study or theory
access
the ability to get to or enter somewhere or something
accommodation
adjustment, agreement, or living place
accompanied
went or came with someone or something
accumulation
collection or process of collecting
accurate
correct and without any mistakes
achieve
to succeed in reaching a target or aim
acknowledged
recognized, admitted the truth, or expressed thanks
acquisition
the process of getting something
adaptation
modification to suit new conditions or environment
adequate
enough or barely enough
adjacent
next to, near, or touching
adjustment
making small changes, or becoming suitable
administration
a method of managing the affairs of an organization
adults
people or living things that are fully grown or developed
advocate
to publicly recommend or support something
affect
to influence or cause something to change
aggregate
the total of all the parts
aid
to help or support
albeit
although, even though
allocation
a share of something for a specific purpose
alter
to change the form or character of something
alternative
something different, or a choice of something else
ambiguous
not clear, or having two or more possible interpretations
amendment
a change made to the words of a text
analogous
similar or comparable in some ways
analysis
a detailed investigation of the parts of something
annual
happening once a year
anticipated
expected something to happen
apparent
able to be understood, or seeming to exist
appendix
supplementary material at the end of a book
appreciation
recognition of value, or expression of thanks
approach
a way of considering or doing something
appropriate
suitable or right for a particular purpose or situation
approximated
came near to, or estimated
arbitrary
based on chance rather than reason
area
a subject or specialization, or part of it
aspects
the parts of a problem, situation or task
assembly
a regular meeting of people, or putting parts together
assessment
when you decide the value or quality of something
assigned
gave someone a task, or sorted something into groups
assistance
an act of helping to complete a task
assume
accept something to be true without questioning it
assurance
promise or confidence
attached
added or fixed something to something else
attained
achieved or gained by effort
attitudes
feelings or opinions about someone or something
attributed
indicated the cause of something
author
writer
authority
an expert on a subject
automatically
without need for help, or without thinking
available
able to be used
aware
to have knowledge or be conscious of something
behalf
personal interest, benefit or representation
benefit
an advantage or good effect
bias
unfair preference, or distortion of statistics
bond
a physical link, or a close social connection
brief
short in time, or expressed in a few words
bulk
majority, or large size or weight of something
capable
having the ability or qualities to do something
capacity
the maximum that can be contained or produced
categories
the groups by which something is classified
ceases
stops something or comes to an end
challenge
something needing effort in order to be done well
channel
a way through which something moves or is transmitted
chapter
a part of a book or period of time
chart
to watch carefully or record in detail
chemical
a substance with a distinct molecular composition
circumstances
the conditions which make a situation the way it is
cited
quoted as an example to support an argument
civil
relating to the ordinary people of a country
clarity
clearness of expression, thought, sound or image
classical
traditional, or belonging to ancient Rome or Greece
clause
a group of words with a meaning, or a legal document
code
regulations, or a set of symbols that mean something
coherence
logical consistency, or integration of parts
coincide
to happen at the same time, or be similar
collapse
fall down or fail suddenly
colleagues
people who work or study together at the same place
commenced
started
comments
spoken or written words to express an opinion
commission
a special group chosen to consider something
commitment
willingness to spend time or energy on something
commodity
something that can be bought or sold
communication
the way living things send messages to each other
community
a social group of people who live in a particular area
compensation
money received for the loss or damage of something
compiled
put together from various sources
complement
to make better when combined
complex
difficult to understand because of its many parts
components
all the individual parts of a system or thing
compounds
substances made up of two or more elements
comprehensive
including many things or everything that is necessary
comprise
to include or consist of
computer
a machine which performs calculations automatically
conceived
gave birth, imagined, or invented
concentration
the ability to think or focus carefully about one thing
concept
an abstract or general idea
conclusion
an opinion one reaches after careful consideration
concurrent
happening at the same time
conduct
to organize and perform a specific task
conference
a meeting or event with talks about a specific subject
confined
limited or enclosed
confirmed
proved true, or made certain
conflict
fighting, or disagreement between people or ideas
conformity
agreement in form or opinion, or doing as others do
consent
voluntary agreement or permission
consequences
the undesired results of a particular act or situation
considerable
large or of noticeable importance
consistent
in agreement with expectations or other facts
constant
unchanging, or happening frequently
constitutional
relating to the laws and principles of a government
constraints
conditions that limit the freedom of a system or thing
construction
the act of building something
consultation
a meeting to discuss something or seek advice
consumer
a person who buys goods or services
contact
communication, or when people or things touch
contemporary
existing now, or of the same period
context
the situation in which something exists or happens
contract
a legal agreement between people or groups
contradiction
disagreement or incompatibility of two or more things
contrary
not in agreement with, or opposite
contrast
an obvious difference between two or more things
contribution
money given or part played to achieve a group aim
controversy
disagreement or argument about an important topic
convention
a conference, or the accepted way of doing something
conversely
in the opposite way, on the other hand
converted
changed form, function or opinion
convinced
persuaded or lead someone to believe or do something
cooperative
willing to help, or involving joint activity
coordination
movement of the body, or management of a group
core
the central or most important part of a system or thing
corporate
relating to a group, company or corporation
corresponding
similar to or anticipated
couple
to link together
create
to make something new or invent something
credit
to recognize a person's contribution to a task
criteria
the rules or guidelines to test or evaluate something
crucial
extremely important
cultural
relating to the customs and beliefs of a certain group
currency
money or acceptance
cycle
a series of events which repeat in a predictable order
data
information from which conclusions may be drawn
debate
a serious discussion involving many people
decades
periods of ten years, or a long time
decline
to get weaker or diminish, or to refuse something
deduction
the act of finding a logical answer or opinion
definite
certain or clear
definition
an explanation of a word or phrase
demonstrate
to show or explain how something works
denote
to indicate, or act as a symbol for
deny
to refuse, not admit, or say that something is not true
depression
unhappiness, or a period of little business activity
derived
formed or developed from something else
design
a plan of something or how its parts are arranged
despite
without taking notice of or being influenced by
detected
noticed, or discovered using instruments
deviation
difference from the norm or what is usual or expected
device
scheme or thing invented for a specific purpose
devoted
gave time or effort to a purpose, activity or person
differentiation
the process of making something different
dimensions
aspects, or the length, width and height of something
diminished
made smaller in size or importance
discretion
careful consideration for others, or the right to choose
discrimination
biased and unfair treatment of a person or group
displacement
movement of people or thing away from a place
display
show, or arrange something to be seen
disposal
the process of getting rid of something
distinction
a specific difference between two similar things
distortion
change of shape, or inaccurate description or reporting
distribution
the way in which things or people are spread about
diversity
variety of opinions, styles, social groups or living things
document
to record the details of a process or event
domain
an area of interest, or an area controlled by someone
domestic
relating to home or country
dominant
stronger than others of the same group or type
draft
a piece of text or plan which is not in its final form
dramatic
exciting, outstanding, or very sudden
duration
period of time that something lasts
dynamic
relating to energy, motion, or change
economic
relating to money or trade
edition
a version or a batch of a publication in a series
elements
the basic principles of a subject of study
eliminate
to get rid of, remove, or leave out
emerged
became known, or appeared out of something
emphasis
the importance or special consideration of something
empirical
based on observation or experiment
enable
to make something possible, practical or easy to do
encountered
met unexpectedly, or experienced something undesired
energy
power or ability to be physically or mentally active
enforcement
to make or force something to happen or be accepted
enhanced
improved in quality, intensity, or value
enormous
very big
ensure
to make certain that something will happen
entities
things, real or abstract, which exist independently
environment
the conditions one lives in and their effects
equation
a statement showing the equivalence of two things
equipment
necessary items for a particular activity of purpose
equivalent
being equal to or effectively the same as
erosion
gradual weakening or damage caused by nature
error
mistake or wrong decision
established
conventional or conforming to accepted standards
estate
all of a person's property or wealth
estimate
a guess of the size, number or amount of something
ethical
morally right
ethnic
of a national, racial, religious or linguistic group
evaluation
judgment of the value or quality of something
eventually
finally, or ultimately
evidence
one or more reasons for believing something
evolution
a gradual process of change, or Darwin's theory
exceed
to be more than a number, amount or allowed limit
excluded
deliberately didn't include something
exhibit
to show. display or reveal
expansion
an increase in size of something
expert
a person with great skill or knowledge of a subject
explicit
clear and detailed, not implicit
exploitation
good use of resources, or unfair use of people
export
to send goods to another country
exposure
being affected by something in a particular place
external
relating to or existing outside
extract
to get from source, pull out, or get by force
facilitate
to make something easy or easier to do
factors
facts which contribute to the result of something
features
the important or typical parts of something
federal
relating to a central government
fees
an amount of money paid for a piece of work or service
file
to store in order or record officially
final
last
financial
relating to the management of money
finite
countable, or having an end or limit
flexibility
ability to bend, change or be changed
fluctuations
irregular variations, or rises and falls
focus
the center of interest, activity, or attention
format
arrangement, layout or plan
formula
a standard way of making or doing something
forthcoming
happening soon
foundation
fundamental principle, or establishment
founded
brought into existence, or based an idea on something
framework
an outline or basic description of a complex process
function
the purpose of something, or the duty of a person
fundamental
basic, central, or more important than anything else
funds
money available for a specific purpose
furthermore
in addition
gender
condition of being male of female
generated
caused something to exist
generation
people of the same age, or the production of energy
global
relating to the whole world
goals
aims, purposes or targets
grade
to classify things or people by quality, rank or level
granted
gave or allowed someone to do something
guarantee
to promise or make certain
guidelines
information to aid or advise people about something
hence
therefore, this is the reason why
hierarchical
classified by rank or grade
highlighted
emphasized or marked as important
hypothesis
an idea based on observation but not yet proven
identical
the same in every way
identified
recognized something by saying what it is
ideology
system of beliefs or principles
ignored
gave no attention to someone or something
illustrated
made clear with pictures or examples
image
a picture in the mind or formed by a mirror or lens
immigration
the act of arriving at a country in order to live there
impact
a powerful effect that something has on a situation
implementation
the realization of a plan, idea or policy
implications
the possible consequences an event may bring
implicit
understood without being said
implies
suggests something without saying directly
imposed
forced a rule, or made someone accept an idea
incentive
something that encourages or motivates a person to do
incidence
occurrence or rate of occurrence of something
inclination
slope, or the way a person feels about something
income
money earned by doing work or gained by investing
incompatible
unable to exist or work together effectively
incorporated
as a corporation, or combined into one thing
index
reference list arranged alphabetically, or scale
indicate
to show, point out, or make clear
individual
a single person or thing when compared to a group
induced
caused to happen, or persuaded to do
inevitably
as expected, or in a way that can not be avoided
inferred
conclude from evidence or logical thinking
infrastructure
basic organization of a system, or public services
inherent
existing as a natural and basic part of something
inhibition
the process of slowing down, restraining, or stopping
initial
existing or occurring at the beginning
initiatives
introductory steps
injury
damage to a person's body after an accident or attack
innovation
invention or new idea or way of doing something
input
contribution, or something that goes into a process
insert
to put something into something else
insights
discoveries or clear understandings of a complex issue
inspection
careful or critical viewing or examination
instance
an occurrence of something
institute
an organization that does scientific or educational work
instructions
information about how to do something
integral
necessary or important to complete a whole
integration
to combine two or more things into a coherent whole
integrity
wholeness, honesty, or having principles
intelligence
capacity to acquire and apply knowledge
intensity
strength of concentration of something
interaction
communication, or the action of things on each other
intermediate
between two extremes or in the middle
internal
relating to or existing inside
interpretation
an explanation or opinion of what something means
interval
a short period of time between one event and the next
intervention
become involved in a situation in order to improve it
intrinsic
basic and essential, or by itself
investigation
a detailed study of examination of a problem or crime
investment
the act of spending time or money in pursuit of gain
invoked
used law or power to improve a situation
involved
complicated or difficult to understand
isolated
separated, or found the cause of something
issues
problems that people are thinking or talking about
items
the things which are part of a list or group
job
regular work, a piece of work, a responsibility or a task
journal
a publication with a focus on a particular subject
justification
to explain or show that something is right or fair
label
information about the object it is fixed to
labor
practical work which involves physical effort
layer
a distinct band, thickness, or level of something
lecture
an educational speech before an audience or class
legal
related to or allowed by law
legislation
a law or laws created by a government
levy
to impose or collect a tax
liberal
open minded and tolerant of others, or generous
license
a legal document giving permission to do or own
likewise
similarly, also
link
a connection between two things
location
place, position or coordinates of something
logic
a way of thinking based on reason
maintenance
the act of keeping something in its present state
major
more important than others of the same type
manipulation
influence, or control of something using hands
manual
relating to, involving or done with hands
marginal
small in amount or effect, or barely acceptable
mature
completely grown or developed, or like an adult
maximum
an upper limit of something
mechanism
a process or sequence of steps within a system
media
television, radio, newspapers or magazines
mediation
negotiation between groups in conflict with each other
medical
relating to the study or practice of medicine
medium
means of transmitting, transporting, or communicating
mental
of the mind
method
a way of doing something
migration
movement of a group from one region to another
military
relating to war or armed forces
minimal
very small, the smallest possible, or barely enough
minimized
reduced to a minimum, or made unimportant
minimum
a lower limit of something
ministry
a government department, or the service of a minister
minorities
groups of people who differ from the larger group
mode
manner, way or form
modified
changed just a little and usually for the better
monitoring
observing, recording or detecting using instruments
motivation
enthusiasm or reason for doing something
mutual
felt or shared by each other or all
negative
bad, less than zero, contradictory, or inconclusive
network
a system of things or people which are interconnected
neutral
without bias or favoritism, or having no charge
nevertheless
despite this, nonetheless, notwithstanding
nonetheless
despite this, nevertheless, notwithstanding
normal
ordinary or usual
norms
accepted or usual standards or ways
notion
idea, opinion or belief
notwithstanding
despite this, nevertheless, nonetheless
nuclear
relating to a nucleus
objective
aim or purpose
obtained
came into possession of
obvious
easy to understand
occupational
relating to work
occur
to happen, often naturally or unexpectedly
odd
unusual, not even, or irregular
offset
to counterbalance or compensate one thing for another
ongoing
in progress or happening now
option
something available as a choice, or the right to choose
orientation
direction or arrangement, aims, training or preparation
outcomes
the end results or consequences of a particular event
output
the end product, or the amount of something produced
overall
in general, considering everything
overlap
correspond or coincide in part with something
overseas
abroad, or to, from or in other countries
panel
a small group of people chosen to give their opinions
paradigm
conceptual framework, or an example of something
paragraph
group of sentences which discuss a single topic
parallel
similar, or of equal distance apart along two lengths
parameters
the facts or rules which limit how something is done
participation
the act of taking part or being involved in something
partnership
a relationship involving close cooperation
passive
accepting without resistance, or not active
perceived
saw, or generally recognized or believed to be true
percent
in proportion to a hundred
period
any length of time
persistent
continuing for a long time, or refusing to give up
perspective
a way of looking at or considering something
phase
a period of time, especially as part of a series
phenomenon
something unusual or amazing which can be sensed
philosophy
a system of beliefs that guide one's behavior
physical
of the body, or having material existence
plus
and also, or more, added to
policy
an established practice or plan of what to do
portion
part or share of a whole
posed
asked formally, caused a problem, or stayed in position
positive
certain about something
potential
the capacity to develop, succeed or achieve
practitioners
people involved in an activity or job requiring skill
preceding
coming before something or someone else
precise
exact or careful and accurate
predicted
said that something would happen in the future
predominantly
mainly or mostly
preliminary
prior to or in preparation for the main activity or event
presumption
an attitude based on probability rather than proof
previous
occurring or existing before something or someone else
primary
more important than anything else
prime
the main or most important, or the best quality
principal
the first, main, or most important
principle
a basic generalization that is accepted as true
prior
coming before something else in time or importance
priority
something important that comes first or before others
procedure
a course of action intended to achieve a result
process
a series of actions taken to achieve a result
professional
relating to or conforming to the standards of work
prohibited
prevented, or refused to allow
project
work or a study of a subject over a period of time
promote
to raise someone or something to a higher level
proportion
the size of something when compared to the whole
prospect
anticipation, or probability of a favorable outcome
protocol
set of rules and procedures
psychology
study of how the mind works and affects behavior
publication
printed item such as a book, magazine or journal
published
made known to the public through writing
purchase
buy
pursue
to follow, try to get, or try to discover information
qualitative
relating to quality
quotation
what someone has said or written
radical
fundamental or extreme
random
without pattern or plan
range
the upper and lower limits of something
ratio
a comparison of two things expressed as a number
rational
logical or based on reason
reaction
behavior or action as a result of a particular event
recovery
return to normal, or getting back something lost
refine
improve something through small changes
regime
a particular government or controlling group or system
region
a geographical or physical area
registered
recorded and accepted by a group or organization
regulations
rules issued by an authority
reinforced
gave support to something
rejected
refused to accept, make use of, or give affection to
relaxed
made rules or controls less severe
release
to let go or let out
relevant
correct or suitable for a particular purpose
reliance
the tendency to trust in someone or something
reluctant
unwilling or hesitant
removed
took away
required
needed or made necessary
research
a detailed study of a subject
resident
a person who lives at a particular place
resolution
a course of action which is decided purposefully
resources
money, valuable possessions, or natural materials
response
an answer or reaction to a question or statement
restore
to return to a previous condition or position
restraints
limitations or controls of the freedom of something
restricted
with limitations, or available only to a select few
retained
kept or continued to have
revealed
showed or made known
revenue
income that a company or government receives
reverse
opposite or back
revision
a change of the words of a text
revolution
a sudden or important change in a situation
rigid
stiff and fixed, or not able to be changed or persuaded
role
a function or part performed in a specific process
route
way between places, or method of achieving something
scenario
imagined event, or model of expected outcomes
schedule
a plan of activities organized by time
scheme
an organized plan, or an outline of a system or thing
scope
range covered, or opportunity
section
a distinct part of something
sector
a geographic or economic area
security
protection of a person, property or organization
select
to choose, especially after careful consideration
sequence
a series, or the order in which things are arranged
series
a sequence of similar or related things
sex
the state of being either female or male
shift
a change in position, direction or conditions
significant
noticeable, meaningful or important
similar
almost but not exactly the same
simulation
model of the essential features of a process or thing
site
a place where something was, is, or will be
so-called
commonly or falsely called
solely
only and exclusively
somewhat
slightly or rather
sought
simple past and past participle of seek
source
the cause of something or place it comes from
specific
relating to one thing and not others
specified
stated clearly or described accurately
sphere
area of interest, knowledge or control
stability
resistance to change, or constancy of character
statistics
a branch of applied mathematics that analyzes data
status
the relative position of someone or something
straightforward
easy to understand, or honest and frank
strategies
detailed plans or methods for achieving success
stress
to give emphasis or special attention to something
structure
the way parts of a system or object are arranged
styles
types, expressions, or ways of doing something
submitted
presented for consideration, or gave in to
subordinate
of less importance or lower status
subsequent
happening after something else
subsidiary
of lesser importance
substitution
the replacement of one thing by another
successive
following in sequence and without a break
sufficient
as much as is needed for a particular purpose
sum
the total number or amount of things added together
summary
a short description of the main points of something
supplementary
extra, or supplying what is lacking
survey
a series of questions used to gather personal data
survive
to continue to live or exist
suspended
stopped something temporarily or permanently
sustainable
able to be continued or maintained
symbolic
representing something else, or ineffective
tapes
recordings of sound or pictures
target
aim, thing to be aimed at, or who something is for
task
a piece of work that is either difficult or unpleasant
team
organized group of people who work cooperatively
technical
relating to specialized words of a specific subject
techniques
ways of doing an activity that requires skill
technology
the study of practical uses of scientific discoveries
temporary
for a limited period
tension
nervousness or uneasiness
termination
end of something, or process of ending something
text
the words printed on a page other than the headings
theme
topic of speech or writing
theory
an organized system of accepted knowledge
thereby
as a result or this
thesis
long academic paper based on original research
topic
subject of a text or discussion
trace
to find or discover by careful searching or research
traditional
the usual ways or customs of a group of people
transfer
to move from one place to another
transformation
a complete change or the process of change
transition
a process or period in which something changes
transmission
process of passing or sending something invisible
transport
to carry from one place to another
trend
fashion, or change in people's behavior or attitude
trigger
cause, or set off an action or series of actions
ultimately
finally and after much trouble or discussion
undergo
to experience of endure
underlying
fundamental, implicit but not obvious, prior
undertaken
done or committed to do with responsibility or effort
unified
brought together or combined as a whole
uniform
always the same
unique
completely different from anything else
utility
usefulness, or public service such as gas or water
validity
acceptance or meaningfulness based on reason
variable
one among a group of things which may change
vehicle
method, or any form of land transport
version
specific variety, different from others or the original
via
by way of, or by means of
violation
action that breaks the rules
virtually
almost or practically
visible
able to be seen
vision
sight, mental image, or ability to anticipate the future
visual
relating to vision or sight
volume
a book which is published periodically or as a series
voluntary
done willingly and without external force
welfare
financial help to the poor, or health and happiness
whereas
but, compared with the fact that
whereby
by which or through which
widespread
existing or happening in many places