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22 Cards in this Set

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A natural, solid mixture of minerals or grains.


Fragments that make up a rock.


The grain size and the way grains fit together in a rock.


Molten or liquid rock underground.


Molten rock that erupts on Earth's surface.


Rock material that forms where rocks are broken down into smaller pieces or dissolved in water as rocks erode.

rock cycle

The series of processes that change one type of rock into another type.

extrusive rock

A type of igneous rock that forms when volcanic material erupts, cools, and crystallizes on Earth's surface.

volcanic glass

Rock that forms when lava cools too quickly to form crystals, like obsidian.

intrusive rock

Igneous rocks that form as magma cools underground.


A process in which the weight from the layers of sediment forces out fluids and decreases the space between grains.


A process in which minerals dissolved in water crystallize between sediment grains and holds the grains together.

clastic rock

Sedimentary rocks that are made up of broken pieces of minerals and rock fragments.


Broken pieces of minerals and rock fragments.

chemical rock

Rocks that form when minerals crystallize directly from water.

biochemical rock

A sedimentary rock that was formed by organisms or contains the remains of organisms.


Any process that affects the structure or composition of a rock in a solid state as a result of changes in temperature, pressure, or the addition of chemical fluids.

plastic deformation

A permanent change in the shape of a rock caused by bending and folding of rocks that have experienced an increase in temperature and pressure.

foliated rock

Rocks containing parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals.

nonfoliated rock

Metamorphic rocks that have mineral grains with a random, interlocking texture.

contact metamorphism

Metamorphic rock formed when magma comes in contact with the existing rock, and its thermal energy and gases interact with the surrounding rock.

regional metamorphism

The formation of metamorphic rock bodies that are hundreds of square kilometers in size.