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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is more proximal:the medial or lateral malleolus?
Medial malleolus is more proximal
A line drawn from medial to lateral malleolus is at an 8 degree angle to the horizontal
Is the center of ankle rotation externally or internally rotated?
23 degrees externally rotated
With which direction of fibular motion is ankle dorsiflexion associated?
External rotation
What peroneal tendon hugs the fibula?
Peroneus brevis
What peroneal tendon has a more distal muscle belly?
Peroneus brevis
The os peroneum lies within what peroneal tendon?
Peroneus longus
What peroneal tendon attaches to the base of the fifth metatarsal?
Peroneus brevis
The groove within the talar body houses what tendon?
Flexor hallucis longus (FHL)
What structure is found lateral to the flexor hallucis longus tendon?
Os trigonum
The groove within the calcaneus houses what tendon
The FHL coursing underneath the sustentaculum tali
What ligament is found in close proximity?
Calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament
The groove within the cuboid houses what tendon?
Peroneus longus
What is the associated syndrome at this location?
POPS (painful os peroneum syndrome)
What tendon inserts on the navicular?
Posterior tibial tendon
This insertion must be repaired after what surgical procedure?
Resection of an accessory navicular
What are the four components of the distal tibiofibular (tib-fib) joint?
Anterior inferior tib-fib ligament (AITFL)
Posterior inferior tib-fib ligament (PITFL)
Interosseous ligament (IO)
Transverse ligament
The AITFL is most commonly involved in what two types of injuries?
Syndesmotic injuries
Tillaux fractures
What is the clinical significance of the PITFL?
Attached to the posterior malleolar fracture fragment in a trimalleolar fracture
What are the two components of the superficial deltoid ligament?
Tibonavicular
Tibocalcaneal
What are the two components of the deep deltoid ligament?
Anterior tibiotalar
Posterior tibiotalar
What is the clinical significance of the deep deltoid ligament?
Primary restraint to anterolateral talar displacement
What deep deltoid component exhibits hypertrophy with recurrent ankle sprains?
Anterior tibiotalar
What is the interval for the anterior approach to the ankle?
Between extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL)
What structure must be identified and protected with this approach?
Superficial peroneal nerve (SPN)
Where does the sural nerve generally cross the Achilles tendon?
10 cm proximal to the insertion
In what position should the foot be placed when testing the posterior tibial tendon (PTT)?
Eversion
Plantar flexion
In what position should the foot be placed when testing the calcaneofibular ligament?
Inversion
Dorsiflexion
In what position should the foot be placed when testing the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL)?
Plantar flexion
Perform anterior drawer test
In what position should the foot be placed when testing for subluxing peroneal tendons?
Dorsiflexion
Eversion
What muscle layers are considered intrinsic?
1
3
What muscle layers are considered extrinsic?
2
4
Layer 1: what are the three components of the musculature and what is their innervation?
Abductor hallucis (medial plantar nerve (MPN)
Flexor digitorum brevis (MPN)
Abductor digiti minimi (lateral plantar nerve (LPN)
Layer 2: what are the four components of the musculature and what is their innervation?
Quadratus plantae (LPN)
Lumbricals (MPN, LPN)
Flexor digitorum longus (tibial nerve)
Flexor hallucis longus (tibial nerve)
Layer 3: what are the three components of the musculature and what is their innervation?
Flexor hallucis brevis (MPN)
Adductor hallucis (LPN)
Flexor digit minimi brevis (LPN)
Layer 4: what are the four components of the musculature and what is their innervation?
Dorsal interosseous muscles (LPN)
Plantar interosseous muscles (LPN)
Peroneus longus (superficial peroneal nerve)
Posterior tibialis (tibial nerve)
In what layer and at what locations do the medial and lateral plantar nerves lie?
Layer 2
MPN lies deep tot he abductor hallucis muscle
LPN lies deep to the quadratus plantae muscle
What is the significance of the extensor digitorum brevis (EDB)? What is its innervation?
Dorsal intrinsic muscle
Innervated by the deep peroneal nerve
What is the origin of the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)?
Medial calcaneal tubercle
What is the insertion of the FDB?
Middle phalanges
What is the origin of the plantar aponeurosis?
Plantar medial calcaneus
Where does the plantar aponeurosis insert?
Toe flexors
What are the three main functions of the aponeurosis?
Increase arch height as toes dorsiflex
Major support of medial longitudinal arch
Aid hind foot inversion
What is the effect of hind foot inversion on the transverse tarsal joints?
Hind foot inversion locks the transverse tarsal joints
What nerve provides sensation to the dorsomedial great toe?
Dorsomedial cutaneous branch of superficial peroneal nerve (SPN)
This nerve runs across what structure?
Extensor hallucis longus (EHL)
What is the interval for the lateral approach to the hind foot?
Between peroneus tertius (deep peroneal nerve) and peroneus brevis (SPN)
What structure must be reflected with this approach?
Extensor digitorum brevis (EDB)
What deeper structure must be identified and protected?
Flexor hallucis longus (FHL)
What structure must be released for the anterolateral approach to the midfoot?
EDB
What deeper structure must be identified and protected with this approach?
Spring ligament