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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Statistical definition of abnormality
Behavior is abnormal if it is rare (but also, what about heroism?)
Disease vs. disorder
Disease implies biological causation, disorder implies psychological causation
Cultural definition of abnormality
Behavior is abnormal if it deviates from the social norms
Functional definition of abnormality
Behavior is abnormal if it interferes with important life functions, like anorexia
Purposes of classification
Brings order to the domain, suggests a degree of relatedness, guides interventions
Problems with classification
Loss of information (labeling, stereotyping, etc.), self-fulfilling prophecies, people are more than just their label
Levels of classification
Collection of signs and symptoms that go together greater than chance
Number of NEW cases in any given interval
Total number of active cases in any given interval
Lifetime prevalence of any disorder
Early Supernatural period
Abnormal behavior was attributed to supernatural forces, people possessed by spirits or gods, and treatment was left to religious leaders (prayers, sacrifices, exorcisms)
Greek Natural Science period
Hippocrates, rejected supernatural theories, treatments were largely physical (rest, diet, etc.), hysteria (uterus wandering around the body looking for a child) and the humoral theory
Humoral theory of psychopathology
Hippocrates' idea during Greek Natural Science period, mental illness was a consequence of imbalances in bodily fliuds
Medieval Supernatural period
Return to supernatural ideas and treatment reverts to religious leaders, Papal Bull that witches do exist and Malleus Maleficarum (Witches' Hammer - first diagnostic manual), corporal possession (unwilling) and spiritual possession (willing = witch)
Renaissance and the rise of Modern Natural Science
Paracelsus (influence of planetary bodies), Kraeplin, general paresis linked to syphilis, and early psychogenic theories (Mesmer, Charcot, Freud, Pavlov, Skinner, Watson)
Emil Kraeplin
Father of modern classification, distinguished dementia praecox (schizophrenia) from manic-depression, "masturbatory insanity"
General paresis
Progressive mental deterioration linked to syphilis (Krafft-Ebbing inoculated paretic patients with the syphilis virus and they didn't get infected because they already were!)
"Mesmerism", animal magnetism theory which later became hypnotism
Believed that mental illness was the result of reversible lesions in the brain
Focused on repressed conflicts, most important aspects of life are unconscious
Watson - changed focus of psychology to behavior
Pavlov - classical conditioning (cues are conditioned)
Skinner - operant conditioning (based on consequences)
Causal processes
Necessary - must be there
Sufficient - all you need
Contributory - ups the odds
Proximal vs. distal
Proximal = causal processes that occur later in time and closer to onset
Distal = causal processes that occur earlier in time and further from onset
Preexisting causal risk triggered by a subsequent event
Biological causal factors
Neurotransmitters, hormones, genes, temperament
Causality - behavioral perspective
Consequence of what you learn:
Classical - cues are conditioned
Operant - consequences shape behaviors
Causality - dynamic perspective (Freud)
Unconscious conflicts locked away in infancy
Causality - cognitive perspective
What you believe to be true influences how you feel and what you do (not necessarily events or situations, but how you perceive them)
Causality - humanistic perspective
Psychopathology as a consequence of not following your internal guide (people are free to make choices, but sometimes we choose wrong)
Causality - sociocultural perspective
Cultural factors influence what disorders develop and what form they take (rates of anorexia for example)
Diagnostic and Statistics Manual (DSM)
Revised 5 times since the 50s, 5 axes:
Axis I - specific disorders
Axis II - personality disorders
Axis III - medical comorbidity
Axis IV - life stress
Axis V - global functioning
Effects within organism of being forced to deal with demands
Event or situation putting demands on an organism
Coping strategies
Efforts by the organism to deal with stress
General adaptation syndrome (stress)
Alarm - mobilization of resources
Resistance - adaptive capabilities maximized
Exhaustion - resources depleted
Stress and the sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic-adrenomeduallry system (SAM) - fight/flight response, mobilizes the body for a rapid response
HPA axis also a part of the sympathetic systems
Stress and immune system
Escape first and heal later, depression as an emotional immune response
Adjustment disorders
Reactions to common life stressors, usually resolved within months
Acute stress disorder
Severe stress syndrome, occurs within 4 weeks and lasts no more than a month
Post-traumatic stress disorder
Persistent reexperiencing of traumatic event (flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive thoughts), avoid stimuli associated with the trauma, chronic arousal and tension (anxiety)
Treatment and prevention of stress disorders
Stress-inoculation training, prediction and control are important, direct exposure and "reliving" strategies
Neurotic behavior
Distress and avoidance behaviors but no loss of contact with reality
Fear vs. anxiety
Psychodynamic view was that they were the same thing, but now we differentiate fear/panic from anxiety since the patterns of biology and anatomy differ
Fear/panic - biology
The activation of emergency response system (fight/flight) - amygdala and locus coeruleus, norepinephrine
Anxiety - biology
Chronic apprehensive arousal (more diffuse and future oriented than fear) - limbic system and stria terminals, GABA and CRH
Fight or flight response
Activation of the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system, readies the body for coordinated action to respond to threat, amygdala triggers firing of the locus coeruleus (NE to the HPA axis)
Prevalence of anxiety disorders
Overall - 25%
Specific phobia - 11%
Social phobia - 13%
Panic disorder and agoraphobia - 3.5%
GAD - 5%
OCD - 2.5%
Specific phobias
Fear in presence of specific object or situation, persistent over time, involves sympathetic arousal (except for blood-injection-injury phobia)
Social phobias
Fear of negative evaluation by others, can be specific or general, worsens with stress, adolescent onset and modest gender split
Panic disorder
Defined as overwhelming sense of imminent danger without an obvious precipitant (unlike specific phobias), onset is rapid and intense, amygdala/locus coeruleus/fight or flight response
Avoidance of situations from which escape would be difficult or help not forthcoming, typically linked to panic disorder, onset in early adulthood but linked to earlier school phobia
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Nonspecific chronic and excessive worry (restless, fatigued, concentration problems, insomnia, etc.), early onset and often co-morbid
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Obsessions (unwanted intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors or acts a person feels driven to perform), adult onset is typical but it can also be found in children, anxiety is the primary affect and responsibility is the primary concern - acting on compulsion briefly reduces the anxiety
Drug treatment of anxiety disorders
Minor tranquilizers - work quickly but don't last and can be addictive
Antidepressants - useful for panic/anxiety disorders
MAOI's and SSRI's - useful for social phobia
Drugs that act on serotonin - useful for OCD
Psychosocial treatment for anxiety disorders
Dynamic treatment - not very effective
Behavior therapy - does reduce symptoms
Systematic desensitization - works for specific phobias
Exposure + response prevention - works for phobias and OCD
CBT with exposure - good for ALL!! (especially panic and GAD)