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46 Cards in this Set

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Worry about two life domains for at least half of day, high comorbidity, high avoidance, somatic or cognitive symptoms, must last 6 months.


Fear/anxiety of at least 2 situations where it would be difficult to escape. Fear of crowded situations where escape may be difficult. 50 percent report panic attacks.

Panic disorder

Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks. Must persist for one month. Interceptor avoidance=person may avoid thing that cause physiological changes which may trigger attack.

Treatment Generalized anxiety disorder

Treated with benzodiazepines, ssri. Cognitive behavioral therapy, acceptance, meditation (better long term results than medication)

Treatment for panic disorder and agoraphobia

Medications: benzodiapines, ssri, beta blockers. High relapse rate when medication is stopped.

Psychological: exposure, reality testing, relaxation, breathing techniques.

Panic control treatment: exposure to interoceptive cues, cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques. High degree of efficacy

Specific phobias

Irrational fear of specific object, significant impairment to life, avoidance of object

Social anxiety disorder

Extreme fear triggered by social scrutiny, fear of negative evaluation and social situations. Fear and avoidance and must last 6 months. Onset starts at adolescents.

Exposure therapy

Spaced vs. Mass: exposure over long periods of time vs. Huge chunk of time exposure

Flooding vs. Systematic: starting at top of fear hierarchy vs. Gradually working tour way to the top. desensitization

Imaginal vs. In-vivo: showing photos or imagining vs. A present fear


Time consuming or distressing, is often chronic, 60% have multiple obsessions.


Trauma exposure, continued reexperiencing, avoidance, negative alterations, physiological arousal, persists for 1 month or longer.

Ptsd treatment

Imaginal exposure, Dr. Foa's: supportive counciling with a little bit of exposure.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Preoccupation with perceived defect over appearance, repetitive behaviors or mental acts.

Treatment for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Exposure response prevention, mirror exposure

Charpita and Barlow

View anxiety disorders as uncontrollability.


Positive symptoms: exaggerations or excess, delusions and hallucinations

Negative symptoms: absence of normal behavior, avolition alogis, anhedonia, flat effect

Disorganized symptoms: disorganized speech and behavior and catatonia

DSM Criteria for Schizophrenia

One symptom of following

1. Delusions 2. Hallucinations 3. Disorganized speech 4. Catatonic behavior 5. Negative symptoms as well as social and occupational functioning decline. Signs must be around for six months.

Influences of schizophrenia

Development: early childhood. Cultural factors: difficulties with labels, worldwide prevalence is similar. Genetic: increased risk with genetic relatedness. Genes that influence eye movement are usually also damaged. Neurobiological: excess of d2 receptors and deficit of d1 receptors. Enlarged lateral ventricles. Glutamate can induce positive and negative symptoms. Prenatal and perinatal: excessive pruning of neural connections during adolescents.

Prevalence of schizophrenia

Onset for men is 15-30 while women is 40-55. Individuals who have it, despite there being few, have lower life expectancy and lower quality of life.

Schizophrenia treatments

Biological: antipsychotic medications decrease positive symptoms but have horrible side effects. Transcranial magnetic stimulation excites neurons in the brain. Psychological: social skills training, community care, behavioral family therapy.

Schizophreniform disorder

Schizophrenia but for only 1 to 6 months.

Brief psychotic disorder

Positive symptoms, one day to one month, usually caused by stress

Delusional disorder

Ideas of grandiose or jealousy, persists for at least a month

Achizoaffective disorder

Symptoms of schizophrenia but with a mood disorder as well. Delusions or hallucinations for two weeks or more in absence of mood symptoms.

Schizotypal personality disorder

Similar symptoms to schizophrenia but less severe.

Anorexia nervosa

Underweight, fear of weight gain, distortions of shape, highest mortality rate of eating disorders. Two types, restricting type and binge/purge type.

Bulimia nervosa

Engage in objective binge eating and loss of control. Innapropriate compensentory behaviors. Undue influence of weight or shape. Have normal body weight.

Binge eating disorder

Objective binge episodes, no innapropriate compensatory behaviors, does not occur during other eating disorders


Behavior that seem like eating disorder but isn't quite

Treatments for eating disorders

Fairburn cognitive behavioral therapy: self monitor and regulation, challenge faulty cognition, maintain. Interpersonal therapy: focused on building social support. Mindfulnessnapproaches: eating mindfully

Substance abuse

Excessive substance use with no physiological dependence

Substance dependance

Physiological need for increasing amounts of substance

Alcohol use

More common in men, the most prevalent substance abuse disorder.

Opponent process therapy

Take drug, experience high, drug positively reinforced, crash, take more drug

Substance abuse treatment biological

Agonist substitution: take safer similar drug antagonist treatment: blocks pleasure effects aversive treatment: makes drug use bad medications: use to cope with withdrawal symptoms

Substance abuse treatment psychological

Project MATCH, 12 step program

Substance abuse psychosocial trratment

Prevention approaches

Sexual response cycle

Desire, excitement, orgasm, resolution.

Desire and arousal dysfunction

Hypoactive sexual desire for men, sexual arousal disorder for women, erectile disorder

Orgasmic disorder

Female orgasmic disorder, delayed ejaculation disorder, early ejaculation

Sexual pain disorder

Genitonpelvic pain/penetration disorder

Barlow model

Psychosoicological arousal, cognitive processes, negative effect


Occurs most often in men, reliance on nongenital thing to get sexual excited


Transbestic fetishism, pedophillic disorder, voyeuristic disorder, exhibitionistic disorder, frotteuristic disorder, sexual sadism and masochism

Treatment for paraphilias

Behavioral therapy (aversion, covert sensitization, assisted covert sensitization) cognitive therapy, biological treatment

Gender dysphoric disorder

Feeling like one is of the opposite gender, must feel distress

Hey cameron

You smell.