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88 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Which type of radioactive decay releases an electron?

Beta decay

The measure of the amount of disorder in a system is ____.

Entropy

The transfer of heat by direct contact is called ____.

Conduction

What process changes a liquid into a solid?

Freezing

What is the energy associated with an object's motion?

Kinetic Energy

What fundamental force binds atomic nuclei together?

Strong nuclear force

The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a standard is a specific ____.

Gravity

What is the SI unit of mass?

Kilogram

Using proper significant figures, what is the answer to the problem (55.0 m/s)(3.029 s)?

167 m

What is the amount of space that matter takes up?

Volume

A device that uses a p-n junction to allow current flow in only one direction is a semiconductor _____.

Diode

A semiconductor that produces electric current through the photovoltaic effect is a _____.

Photovoltaic cell

A vacuum tube that has three electrodes is called a ___.

Triode

A program stored in a form that the computer's CPU can understand, as a sequence of numbers representing basic operations, is a ____ language.

Machine

The circuit board that connects all the computer's components is the _____.

Motherboard

A mixture in which molecules of a substance are not completely mixed is a ____.

Heterogeneous mixture

Which type of chemical bond involves sharing electrons between two atoms?

Covalent bond

Which intermolecular force is caused by permanent partial charges on molecules?

Dipole-dipole force

What is a substance composed of two of more types of atoms bonded together?

Compound

The process of splitting an atomic nucleus into smaller pieces is nuclear ____.

Fission

In the periodic table of the elements, elements are arranged by ____.

Atomic number

What type of neutral subatomic particle is found in the atom's nucleus?

Neutron

A device that processes information using electronic circuits is called a ____.

Computer

Integrated circuits are preferred to diodes and transistors because integrated circuits are more reliable, ____, and ____.

Smaller, cheaper

The two main types of software are system software and ____ software.

Application

An alcohol is an organic compound containing a ____ group.

Hydroxyl

What is the process in which the body produces and uses energy from food?

Metabolism

What is the energy carrier of the cell?

ATP

The number in a chemical equation that indicates how many molecules or formula units are involved in a reaction is the _____.

Coefficient

What is a random change in DNA that occurs when a gene is damaged or copied incorrectly?

mutation

What vector represents the rate of change in an object's position?

velocity

What is the SI unit of force?

Newton

The actual multiplication of force provided by a simple machine is the machine's ____.

AMA

The product of the object's mass and velocity is its ____.

Momentum

Sound with frequency below the range of human hearing is _____ sound.

Infrasonic

Consonance and dissonance are caused by _____ of sound waves.

Interference

A change in a sound's frequency that is caused by an object's motion demonstrates the _____ effect.

Doppler

Find the speed of a wave that has a wavelength of 4.0 m and a frequency of 2.0 Hz.

8.0 m/s

The additive primary colors of light are ____.

Red, green, and blue

Name the bundles or packets of energy that electromagnetic waves travel as.

Photons

What form of electromagnetic radiation causes sunburns?

Ultraviolet radiation

What is the world's largest computer network?

Internet

What type of device converts digital data into analog data?

Modem

What is a versatile computer directed machine that can be programmed to do different tasks without human intervention?

Robot

What term refers to any general-purpose computer designed to be accessed by many users at once?

Server

What term refers to the actual physical components of a computer?

Hardware

How many bits are in a byte?

8

What branch of electricity deals with the behavior and motion of electrons in a vacuum or special materials?

Electronics

What is a single chip containing a complete CPU called?

Microprocessor

What is the collection of programs that contain instructions for displaying words and images on the screen, saving information on the disk drive, and detecting what the user types on the keyboard.

Operating system

What type of particle are cathode rays made of?

Electrons

A simple device for detecting electric charges is a ____.

Electroscope

Modern device for storing electric charges is a ____.

Capacitor

A material that has several unpaired electrons per atom and is strongly attracted to magnets is ____.

Ferromagnetic

The declination of Earth's magnetic field is at the _____.

Agonic line

A circuit with loads arranged in a single branch so that the current passes through all the loads is a ____ circuit.

Series

A device for communicating over long distances using electromagnets is a ____.

Telegraph

If the current in a circuit is 10.0 A and the voltage is 5.0 V, how much power does the circuit generate?

50. W

What device produces an electric current using electromagnetic induction?

Generator

In the manufacture of integrated circuits, raw materials are coded onto a wafer made of ____.

Silicon

What is the most common type of transistor?

Field-effect transistor

What system uses codes called URI's to identify specific pieces of information and indicate what method should be used to access the information?

World Wide Web

What is a system of using the Internet to access remote computer resources that store, process, and manage users' data?

Cloud computing

What is the "brain" if a computer?

CPU

What system allows a computer to store programs and information?

Memory

What is not a reason for doping a semi conductor?

Reduces cost

What is used to store information permanently?

ROM

A computer designed to perform only a few functions is a _____ -purpose computer.

Special

The photovoltaic cell and light- emitting diode are examples of ____.

Solid-state devices

The first general-purpose electric computer was _____.

ENIAC

Relates the force needed to deform a solid and the amount of the deformation

Hooke's law

When chemical equilibrium is distributed, the system will react to at least partially offset the disturbance

Le Châtelier's principle

Lateral (sideward) pressure exerted by a moving fluid decreases as the fluid's speed increases

Bernoulli's principle

The idea that the universe is lawful, orderly, and operates according to physical laws

Principle of causality

Says that gravity is an effect of the geometry of space

General theory of relativity

The most commonly accepted evolutionary view of the origin of the matter and energy of the universe

Big Bang theory

If the pressure of a gas remains constant, the volume and temperature of the gas are directly proportional

Charles's law

States the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance

Ohm's law

Like poles repel, and unlike poles attract

Law of magnetic poles

The velocity of an object does not change unless the object is acted upon by an external force

First law of motion

The energy gained (or lost) by a system equals the energy lost (or gained) by the surroundings

First law of thermodynamics

The buoyant force experienced by an object exactly equals the weight of the fluid displaced

Archimedes' principle

The common coding system that requires only one byte per character is ____.

ASCII

The number system based on powers of 16 in the ____ number system.

Hexadecimal

The phenomenon in which an electric current flows from a hot filament to a positive electrode is ____ emission.

Thermionic

The type of data that can have any possible value with in a certain range is ____data.

Analog

A kilobyte equals _____ bytes.

1,024

The memory that a computer uses to store information temporarily is ____.

RAM