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10 Cards in this Set

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Define deindividuation.
a psychological state characterised by LOWERED self-evaluation and DECREASED concerns about evaluation by others.
What did Zimbardo (1969) postulate about aggression?
He built on Le Bon's (1895) crowd theory, suggesting that the state of deindividuation is aroused when individuals join large groups. This leads to an INCREASE in behaviour that would normally be inhibited by PERSONAL or social norms. A PERSON IS MORE LIKELY TO BE AGGRESSIVE WHEN IN A CROWD.
The theory was built on another.
What two factors did Zimbardo find that lead to deindividuation
1) Anonymity of a crowd

2) Altered consciousness

Explain anonymity of a crowd.
Makes a person unaccountable for their actions, therefore releases psychological inhibitions against aggressive behaviour. Leading to diminished fear of negative evaluation by others. As you can be identified and reduces guilt.
Explain altered consciousness.
Things like drugs and alcohol can lead to reduced inhibitions and reduced cognition for the consequences of your action.
What the research that supports the theory?
Zimbardo (1969)- 4 female undergrads had to shock another 'students' to 'aid learning'.
Just explain the pps used and what they had to do.
What were the two conditions in the Zimbardo (1969)?
1) pps were bulky lab hoods, dressed as group and were introduces and sat in cubicles.

2) pps were introduced, normal clothing, large name tags, sat together around a table.

What did Zimbardo (1969) find in his study? Add a linking sentence as well.
Pps in the deindividuated condition (first group) shocked for twice as long as identifiable pps. Showing that deindividuation has a powerful effect on aggression
How was the theory gender biased?
Cannavale et al (1970)- all male groups only responded to deindividuation with an increase in aggression.

Diener et al (1973)- greater disinhibition of aggression in males than females.

Doesn't offer an explanation for why genders differ.

How is the theory NOT culturally biased?
Watson (1973)- investigated the effects of anonymity on aggression. Warriors from 23 societies including tribal societies. Compared the levels of changing their appearance (e.g. tribal costumes) to levels of killing torturing and multination of their victims.