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12 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Give 2 advantages of in vitro gene cloning

• Extremely rapid

• Doesn't require living cells

Give 3 advantages of in vivo gene cloning

• Useful to introduce a gene into another organism

• Involves almost no risk of contamination

• Very accurate

• Cuts out specific genes

• Produces transformed bacteria that can be used to produce large quantities of gene products

What are the three stages of the Polymerase Chain Reaction?

1. Separation of the DNA strand

2. Annealing of primers

3. Synthesis of DNA

What is a primer?

Short sequences of nucleotides that have a set of bases complementary to those at one end of each of the two DNA strands in PCR

What is a thermocycler?

A computer-controlled machine that varies the temperatures precisely over a period of time.

What are DNA bases which are non-coding known as?

Variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs)

What does VNTR stand for?

Variable number tandem repeats

What is different about each individuals VNTRs?

The number and length has a unique pattern

What is gel electrophoresis used for?

Separating DNA fragments according to their size

Descibe how gel electrophoresis works

• DNA fragments placed on an agar gel and a voltage is applied across it

• Larger fragments move along the gel slower than smaller fragments due to resistance of the gel

• This leads to DNA fragments of different lengths being separated

How can the location of DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis be identified?

• Label DNA fragments before with a radioactive probe

• Place a sheet of Xray film over the agar gel for several hours

• The radioactivity from each DNA fragment exposes the film and shows the location of each fragment on the gel

What is a limitation of gel electrophoresis? How can it be minimised?

• Only DNA fragments up to around 500 bases long can be sequenced by gel electrophoresis

• Larger genes and whole genomes can be cut into smaller fragments by restriction endonucleases beforehand