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38 Cards in this Set

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lived sometime between 1000 BCE and 600 BCE. Founded Zoroastrianism. Based in Iran.
Precursor to Christianity and Judaism. Belief in good vs. evil, resurrection, heaven and hell, Satan, last judgment.
founded 226 CE, included Transoxiana, Caspian region, Iran, Iraq. Capital at Ctesiphon palace built by Khusrow (531-79). Religion Zoastrian
Became Copts, Syrian Orthodox, Jacobites, Armenian Orthodox
Founded by bishop of Antioch. Believed that within Christ were 2 distinct persons.
Defined at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 CE. Christ was seen as both human and divine.
Council of Chalcedon
451 States that Christ has 2 natures
(human and divine) united in one person
527-65 Aims to reunite Mediterranean world, builds Hagia Sophia
Founds Constantinople 330
Founded by Nabateans, caravan city
Arab tribal confederation, served as buffer state to nomadic bedouin, served in Byzantine army, become Monophysite in 540
housed idols, (360 ?) house of Allah the highest god in the pantheon, Religion of Ibrahim
Muhammad Early Years
born 570 in Mecca, orphan at early age, protected by uncle Abu Talib, marries Khadija a wealthy widow
Monotheistic, religion of Abraham, precursor to Islam, Banu Hanifa tribe led by Christians
Umar ibn al-Khattab
2nd caliph, sends troops to Iraq, Battle at Qadisiya defeats Sasssanians, capture of Ctesiphon Emperor Yazdagird flees, controls Iraq 638, Defeats Yazdagird Battle of Nahavand 642, Umar killed by Iranian prisoner
Last Sassanian Emperor, killed by Umar
Continues campaigns in Fars vs. Sassanian family 645-50, Azerbaijan and Khurasan difficult to subdue, murdered in 656 in Medina by tribes upset with his nepotism of Meccan tribes
Syrian governor, seeks vengeance vs Ali for not punishing Uthman murderers, becomes caliph 661-80, first of the Quraysh Umayyads
Ali ibn Talib
4th caliph, doesn't punish Uthman murderers, signs accord with Mu'awiya, killed by Kharijites
Abu Bakr
1st Caliph, elected by consensus of umma, fights ridda wars of Arab consolidation
Riddah Wars
tribes stop paying taxes after death of Muhammad, false prophets appear to claim leadership, Wars of Apostasy
ahl al-dhimma
protected peoples, payed taxes, held land and jobs, served in army
Qutayba ibn Muslim
Governor of Khurasan, brutal conqueror of Transoxiana, killed by own troops
Musa ibn Nusayr
Maghrib governor, campaigns 705-14 in Ifriqiya, aided by Berber converts
Visogoths ask for military aid from Musa ibn Nusayr the gov. of Maghrib vs. Roderick in 710, Berber armies sweep Iberian peninsula with aid from persecuted Jews
Non-Arab converts
Abd al-Malik
(685-705) Umayyad caliph, built Dome of the Rock, mint gold coin (dinar), convert language of administration to Arabic
Umar II
(717-20) Umayyad caliph, removes Syrian garrisons, halts war of conquest, non-Muslims forbidden to wear silk & turbans, destroys religious images
Battle of Tours/Poitiers
Eudo allies with Berbers against Abd al-Rahman, Charles Martel defeats Rahman 733?
Great Berber revolt
Kharijite movement 740, Umayyads lost maghrib west of Qayrawan
(to depart: leave) began as violent movement against the capitulations by Ali to Mu'awiya, later movement retreats from umma, kill Ali in 661
Zayd grandson of Husayn, claim caliph descent from Husayn, piety minded beliefs
Husayni Alids
Founded by Muhammad al-Baqir 713 based in Medina, fall between Ghulat and Zaydis, piety minded with spiritual leadership, collected hadiths,
(exaggerators) extremist champions of Alids, claim prophecy abilities in their leaders, believe in transmigration of the souls
al-Saffah (the bloodshedder) 750-54, first caliph of the Abbasids
The sayings and behavior of the Prophet. Comments on daily issues and his own examples of correct living.
The dominant tribe of Mecca. Tribe of the Prophet who fought him after kicking him out of Mecca
Battle of the Ditch
Large trench built around Medina which foiled attack by Meccan tribes.