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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

Compact Bone

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of


The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is


What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo

Hyaline Cartilage

In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone

Decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the


The internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
the location of blood-forming tissue.


Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis

Drinking flourified water

Ossification of the ends of long bones

Produced by secondary ossification centers

Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human skeleton. What is responsible for the resilience of cartilage

High water content

most abundant skeletal cartilage type

Hyaline Carilage

not the function(s) of the skeletal system


structural unit of compact bone


Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of

Osteoblasts AND Osteoclasts

Dense connective tissue which secures the periosteum to the underlying bone

Perforating (Sharpeyʹs ) fibers
The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of

Blood vessels and nerve fibers

The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live


Necessary for intramembranous ossification to take place

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

process of bones increasing in width

Appositional growth

Accomplishes the process of bones constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons


Hormone that increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream


Type of bone that vertebrae are considered

Flat bone

Begins about the age of 40; when a universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton

incomplete osteon formation and mineralization
bone fracture perpendicular to the boneʹs axis


Wolffʹs law is concerned with
the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
Cranial bones develop

within fibrous membranes

Within Fibrous Membranes

Where cranial bones develop

due to pus-forming bacteria
Appositional growth
the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
interstitial growth
Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

Framework in which Spongy bone is made

bone formation
Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through
interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood

growth hormone

cases where the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early

elevated sex hormones

how mechanical forces communicate with cells responsible for bone remodeling
Vitamin D enhances
skin cancer
Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
An inherited condition that affects the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and may have led to the folklore about vampires

A needle would go through layer of skin last

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order
corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
The major regions of a hair shaft

medulla, cortex, cuticle

external root sheath
The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except

Sebaceous Glands

Acne is a disorder associated with


Two layers

arrector pili

Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps


Which layer of skin would be damaged if a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the sole of the foot

Meissnerʹs corpuscles
specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure
spidery-shaped cells in contact with cells in the stratum basale

Kinky hair has flat, ribbon like hair shafts.

why hair appears the way it does

Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects
Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body
resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system

Functions of integumentary sytem as a covering

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
function of the root hair plexus
Vernix caseosa
whitish material produced by fetal sebaceous glands
modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax.
diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
Process by which nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis)

adipose tissue

reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber

four different cell shapes found in five distinct layers, each cell shape with a special function

The epidermis is responsible for protecting the body against invasion of bacteria and other foreign agents primarily because it is composed of
produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because

Keratinocytes accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion

Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage
stratum basale
layers responsible for cell division and replacement
macrophages called Langerhansʹ cells
The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function
Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
protects us against excessive water loss through the skin
fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
likely to be found in the dermis

reticular layer

constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin
silvery-white scars
How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn
dermal papillae.
The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called

genetically determined and unique to each individual

to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints
Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion
bodyʹs natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage
Addisonʹs disease
The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
Langerhansʹ cell
specialized phagocytic cell
nutrition and hormones
most important factors influencing hair growth
modification of the epidermis.
eccrine and apocrine
sweat glands
99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin C
composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands
Apocrine glands
in the axillary and anogenital area

hormones; especially androgens

The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated
vital function of the skin
converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.

rule of nine's

Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
fluid loss
first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn