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58 Cards in this Set

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Who was Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán?
President of Guatemala from 1951 until kicked out by U.S. CIA in 1954.
Who was Mohammed Mossadegh?
Prime minister of Iran from 1951 until kicked out in 1953 by U.S. and Britain due to nationalization of the oil industry.
What did the CIA do in the Cold War?
During the Cold War, the CIA was focused on preventing communist expansion, attempting to overthrow the governments of Guatemala and Cuba.
What was the Cold War?
The Cold War was the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies from the mid-1940s until the early 1990s.
What is a sphere of influence?
A sphere of influence is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. During the Cold War, Eastern Europe, North Korea, Cuba, Vietnam, and others were said to lie under the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union.
What was containment?
Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the Cold War. Its policy was to stop nations from moving politically towards communism, rather than capitalism.
What was the iron curtain?
The iron curtain was a term used to describe that the Soviet Union stood behind a wall that could not be penetrated, because it was a communist nation.
What is communism?
Communism is a form of government in which the government has absolute control over the people. People worked solely for the government, and are unable to earn money for themselves. All people are equal.
What is capitalism?
an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is made and maintained chiefly by private individuals or corporations, esp. as contrasted to cooperatively or state-owned means of wealth.
What was NATO?
NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In April 1949 when it was started, NATO was made up of a military alliance between the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Norway, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Denmark, Belgium, and Iceland.
What was the Warsaw Pact?
In 1955, the Soviet Union responded by forming their own military alliance called the Warsaw Pact. The Warsaw Pact initially consisted of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union, all communist countries in Eastern Europe.
Who was Joseph McCarthy?
Joseph McCarthy served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957. Beginning in 1950, McCarthy became the most visible public face of a period of intense anti-communist suspicion inspired by the tensions of the Cold War.
What was duck and cover?
Duck and Cover was a suggested method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear detonation which the United States government taught to generations of United States school children from the late 1940s into the 1980s. This was supposed to protect them in the event of an unexpected nuclear attack which, they were told, could come at any time without warning.
Who were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg?
Julius Rosenberg and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg were American citizens who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
What happened with Korea in the Cold War?
In June of 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Russian tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (1950-1953), millions of civilians died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities.
Who was Douglas MacArthur?
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II, receiving the Medal of Honor for his early service in the Philippines and on the Bataan Peninsula. He was designated to command the proposed invasion of Japan in November 1945, and when that was no longer necessary he officially accepted their surrender on September 2, 1945.
What is the 38th parallel?
The parallel 38° north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It is the dividing line between North and South Korea.
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?
The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war. The United States armed forces were at their highest state of readiness ever and Soviet field commanders in Cuba were prepared to use battlefield nuclear weapons to defend the island if it was invaded. Luckily, thanks to the bravery of two men, President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, war was averted. For the United States, the crisis began on October 15, 1962 when reconnaissance photographs revealed Soviet missiles under construction in Cuba. Tensions finally began to ease on October 28 when Khrushchev announced that he would dismantle the installations and return the missiles to the Soviet Union, expressing his trust that the United States would not invade Cuba.
Who was Nikita Kruschev?
Sserved as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, following the death of Joseph Stalin, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. Khrushchev was responsible for the De-Stalinization of the USSR, as well as several liberal reforms ranging from agriculture to foreign policy. Khrushchev's party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev.
Who was Ho Chi Minh?
A Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman, who later became prime minister (1946–1955) and president (1946–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).
Led the Viet Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the communist-governed Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu. He led the North Vietnamese in the Vietnam War until his death; six years later, the war ended with a North Vietnamese victory, and Vietnamese unification followed.
What happened at Tonkin Gulf?
Prompted the first large-scale involvement of U.S. armed forces in Vietnam. It was a pair of attacks carried out by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) against two American destroyers, the USS Maddox and the USS Turner Joy. The incident occurred on August 2 and 4, 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin. The outcome of the incident was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression". The resolution served as Johnson's legal justification for escalating American involvement in the Vietnam War, which lasted until 1975.
What war was fought in Vietnam?
The war was fought between the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and its communist allies and the US-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). It concluded with the defeat of the United States, the dissolution of South Vietnam, and the failure of United States foreign policy in Vietnam.
Who were the presidents from 1947-1977?
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harry S. Truman
Dwight D. Eisenhower
John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
What caused the rise of the nazis?
After World War I, Germany was feeling down. They needed someone to strengthen their country. The nazis positioned themselves as the right people to perform this task. Unfortunately, the nazis' methods of fulfilling their goals were not very good ones, and many, mainly Jews, were hurt and killed in the Holocaust.
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I. It was signed on June 28, 1919, 5 years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, one of the events that triggered the start of the war. Although the armistice signed on November 11, 1918 put an end to the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude a peace treaty. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial provisions required Germany and its allies to accept full responsibility for causing the war. This paved the way for World War II.
Who was Adolf Hitler?
He was the head of the Nazi party, and the leader of Germany for a couple of years. Came into power 1934, died in 1945
What did Neville Chaimberlain say?
He said: "My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honour.
I believe it is peace for our time...
Go home and get a nice quiet sleep." which was ironic, because Europe came into World War II the next day.
What was the significance of Japanese Nationalism?
Japanese nationalism provided a political and ideological foundation for the actions of the Japanese military (Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy forces) in the years leading up to World War II. Despite its distinctive features (Emperor worship and the ethno-religious character of the state), Japanese nationalism served the same function as and drew inspiration from similar ideologies developed under Western Fascism.
What happened in Manchuria?
In 1931, the Japanese Kwangtung Army attacked Chinese troops in Manchuria in an event commonly known as the Manchurian Incident. Essentially, this was an attempt by the Japanese Empire to gain control over the whole province, in order to eventually encompass all of East Asia. This proved to be one of the causes of World War II.
What happened at Pearl Harbor?
A surprise attack against the United States' naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii by the Japanese navy, on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, resulting in the United States becoming involved in World War II. It was intended as a preventive action to remove the U.S. Pacific Fleet as a factor in the war Japan was about to wage against Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States. Two aerial attack waves, totaling 353 aircraft, launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers.
What is a two front war?
In military terminology, a two-front war is one in which fighting takes place on two geographically separate fronts. It is usually executed by two or more separate forces simultaneously or nearly simultaneously, in the hope that their opponent will be forced to split their fighting force to deal with both threats, therefore reducing their odds of success.
What happened in Hiroshima?
On Monday, August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by the crew of the American B-29 bomber Enola Gay, directly killing an estimated 80,000 people.
Who was Franz Ferdinand?
On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot to death in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić. The political objective of the assassination was to break Austria-Hungary's south-Slav provinces off so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia. The bombing and murders of June 28 led to the outbreak of World War I a month later.
What was the Zimmerman Telegram?
The Zimmermann was a coded telegram dispatched by the Foreign Secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann, on January 16, 1917, to the German ambassador in the United States of America, Johann von Bernstorff, at the height of World War I. On January 19, Bernstorff, per Zimmermann's request, forwarded the Telegram to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckardt. Zimmermann sent the Telegram in anticipation of the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by the German Empire on February 1, an act which German High Command feared would draw the neutral United States into war on the side of the Allies. The Telegram instructed Ambassador Eckardt that if the United States appeared likely to enter the war he was to approach the Mexican government with a proposal for military alliance. He was to offer Mexico material aid in the reclamation of territory lost during the Mexican-American War, specifically the American states of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
What was selective service?
The means by which the United States administers military conscription. It entails registering all men between the ages of 18 and 25 with the system for the purpose of having information available about potential soldiers in the event of war.
What was the machine gun?
A machine gun is a fully-automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire rifle cartridges in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute. World War I was the first time the machine gun had been used to kill tons and tons of people, with no one clearly in the lead of the war for a while.
What was a U-boat?
U-boats were military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in World War I and World War II. Although in theory U-boats could have been useful fleet weapons against enemy naval warships, in practice they were most effectively used in an economic-warfare role, enforcing a naval blockade against enemy shipping.
What was the Lusitania?
A British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. Christened and launched on Thursday, June 7, 1906. Lusitania met a disastrous end as a casualty of the First World War when she was torpedoed by the German submarine U-20 on May 7, 1915. Carrying many American passengers, the great ship sank in just 18 minutes, eight miles (15 km) off the Old Head of Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the people aboard. The sinking turned public opinion in many countries against Germany.
What was trench warfare?
A form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. Trench warfare arose when there was a revolution in firepower without similar advances in mobility. The result was a slow and grueling form of defense-oriented warfare in which both sides constructed elaborate and heavily armed trench and dugout systems opposing each other along a front, with soldiers in both trench lines largely defiladed from the other's small arms fire and enclosed by barbed wire. The area between opposing trench lines (known as "no man's land") was fully exposed to small-arms and artillery fire from both sides.
What was poison gas?
The Hague Declaration of 1899 and the Hague Convention of 1907 forbade the use of "poison or poisonous weapons" in warfare, yet more than 124,000 tons of gas were produced by the end of World War I. The French were the first to use chemical weapons during the First World War, using tear gas. Official figures declare about 1,176,500 non-fatal casualties and 85,000 fatalities directly caused by chemical warfare agents during the course of the war.
In what way was Woodrow Wilson involved in World War I?
He tried to keep American neutral, until 1917
What was the League of Nations?
The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920. At its greatest extent from the 28 September 1934 to the 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. The United Nations replaced the League of Nations after World War II.
Alfred Thayer Mahan?
Mahan's major influence came from his association with such politicians as John Hay, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Theodore Roosevelt, all of whom were committed to American imperial expansion. In his writings Mahan argued that expansion was a military necessity for the United States. It was largely on the basis of Mahan's ideas, for instance, that President Theodore Roosevelt took steps to acquire the Panama Canal for the United States.
What was the Lodge?
The Lodge Committee was a U.S. Senate committee which held hearings to investigate allegations of war crimes in the Philippine-American War. The hearings commenced on January 31, 1902 and adjourned on June 28, 1902. They were closed to the public, except for three press associations. The final report came to 3,000 pages.
Find out about three reasons for expansion!
I will!
Who was José Martí?
José Julián Martí Pérez was a leader of the Cuban independence movement from Spain and as well a renowned poet and writer. He is considered the national hero of Cuba and often referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence".
What was the U.S.S. Maine?
USS Maine (ACR-1), the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the state of Maine, was a battleship. The sinking of the Maine on February 15, 1898 precipitated the Spanish-American War and also popularized the phrase Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain! In subsequent years, the cause of the sinking of the Maine became the subject of much speculation. The cause of the explosion that sank the ship remains an unsolved mystery.
What is Yellow journalism?
Yellow journalism is a pejorative reference to journalism that features sex scandals, scandal-mongering, sensationalism, or other unethical or unprofessional practices by news media organizations or journalists, in order to sell more copies.
What was the significance of the Philippines in American Imperialism?
The Philippines were fighting for independence against Spain, and America, who also decided to fight against Spain, defeated Spain and gained control of the Philippines. The Philippines then attempted to gain their independence from America.
What was the significance of Cuba in American Imperialism?
Theodore Roosevelt, who had fought in the Spanish-American War and had some sympathies with the independence movement, succeeded McKinley as President of the United States in 1901 and abandoned the 20-year treaty proposal. Instead, the Republic of Cuba gained formal independence on 20 May 1902, with the independence leader Tomás Estrada Palma becoming the country's first president. Under the new Cuban constitution, however, the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Under the Platt Amendment, Cuba also agreed to lease to the U.S. the naval base at Guantánamo Bay.
What were reconcentration camps?
Find out!
What was the significance of Joseph Pulitzer in American Imperialism?
Joseph Pulitzer was a Hungarian-American publisher best known for posthumously establishing the Pulitzer Prizes and (along with William Randolph Hearst) for originating yellow journalism.
Who was William Randolph Hearst?
Hearst was a leading newspaper publisher. He acquired The New York Journal and engaged in a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World that led to the creation of "yellow journalism"--sensationalized stories of dubious veracity.
Who was Emilio Aguinaldo?
General Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role in Philippine independence during the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation. He eventually pledged his allegiance to the US government.
What was neutrality?
A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by any of them. A neutralist policy aims at neutrality in case of an armed conflict that could involve the party in question. A neutralist is an advocate of neutrality in international affairs.
Dates of World War I
1914 - 1918
Dates of World War II
Late 1930s - 1945
Dates of the Cold War
Mid 1940s - Early 1990s