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183 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
copernican astronomy
we are not at the center of the universe
where stars are found; a group of 100-200 billion stars
conservation of energy
energy can't be created or destroyed
form of energy; transfers among particles in a substance or system by means of kinetic energy
heat death of the universe
eventually the universe will end of w/nothing more than a conglomeration of small particles moving in chaotic patterns (too much heat)
big bang theory
16 billion yrs ago, stars, planets, moons, etc. were compressed into 1 dimensionless point; giant explosion occured & threw everything outward
what is the ultimate speed limit of the universe
186282 mi/sec
according to the big bang theory, how old is our universe?
10-20 billion yrs
starting position for right ascension
1st day of spring/ vernal equinox
what's the name of our galaxy
milky way
approx how many stars can be seen w/the naked eye on a clear night
2500 stars
if the amt of space in a universe can be measured
when space goes on forever
open universe
a universe w/no ending
closed universe
a universe that has boundaries or limits
one hundredth of a meter
one thousand meters (3/5 of a mile)
3 basic components of the physical universe
space time matter
how was the meter originally defined
one 10-millionth the distance btwn. the north pole & equator
what is measured by square units of space
what is measured by cubic units of space
what is the shape of a finite 2-dimensional universe that's open in both dimensions
surface of a sphere
what's the shape of a finite 2-dimensional universe that's open in just 1 dimension
surface of a cylinder
what would the physical universe be like if space didn't exist
all objects would be lumped together in one small spot
what would the physical universe be like if time didn't exist
every event would take place at the same time
sidereal day
the real length of time it takes the earth to rotate; 23 hrs, 56 mins, 4 secs
solar day
the 24 hr span we live by
platonic year
number of yrs it takes for earth to complete one wobble (25800 yrs)
prime unit in the metric system (2.2 lbs on earth)
the only fundamental unit of mass in the english system (32.2 lbs on earth)
what originally determined the length of the month
the time it took for the moon to orbit the earth
why are there 7 days in our week
the babylonians noticed how a few points of light in the sky moved diff from other stars.. 7 moved this way
what is one of the effects of the earth's wobbling on its axis
we obtain a new north star every few thousand yrs
wobbling on its axis
if you were to travel to jupiter where gravity is 5 times stronger on earth...
a. your mass & weight would be 5 times as much on earth
b. only your weight would be 5x greater
c. only your mass would be 5x greater
d. neither mass or weight would change
what's the north star now & what will the next one be?
now is polaris. will be vega
the earth rotates on its axis from
a. north to south
b. south to north
c. east to west
d. west to east.
if a distant star were in front of you, exactly how long would it take the earth to rotate so that the star is again exactly in front of you?
a. solar day
b. 23 hrs, 56 mins, 4 sec
c. week
d. 24 hr.
if a ball on the end of a string is first made to swing back & forth through a large arc & then a small arc:
a. the length of time to swing back & forth is the same for both arcs
b. takes longer to swing thru large arc
c. takes longer to swing thru small arc
why does the sidereal day and solar day differ by about 4 mins
it takes the sun about 4 mins longer to appear to go around the earth- a result of the movement of the earth in its revolution around the sun
difference btwn weight & mass
weight depends on how strong gravity pulls an object & mass depends on the atoms that make up the object
small circle
circles north and south of the equator which wouldn't cut the earth into equal portions
great circle
the circle around the earth; divides planet into 2 equal halves
prime meridian
longitudinal line of 0 degrees running thru greenich, england
ozone layer
layer in earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone
how many miles is it from the surface of the earth to the center of the earth
4000 miles
diameter of earth
8000 miles
which layer of our atmosphere is closest to the ground
where is 0 degrees latitude
what is the shortest distance btwn 2 points on the surface of the earth
an arc of a great circle
the very center of the earth is:
a. molten nickel & iron
b. solid nickel & iron
c. molten rocks
d. solid rocks
the layer of the atmosphere that can be used to reflect radio waves is
the earth's mantle is made mostly of
heavy rocks
what would happen if the ozone layer disappeared
uv rays could easily penetrate earth's atomosphere
the earth's crust is made of
light rocks
if you fell into a hole that went from 1 side of earth to the other, how fast would you be falling & how long would it take you
44 mins @ 18000 miles/hr
line running from the north thru the zenith to the south- cuts sky into eastern & western half
horizon- tells which direction to look
circumpolar stars
stars at the north pole that dont rise or set
latitude in the sky- measured from 0 degrees at the celestial equator to + or - 90 degrees at the poles
right ascension
north-south lines when projected onto the celestial sphere
the path the sun follows thru the sky over the course of the year
where would you look in the sky to find an altitude of 45 degrees and azimuth of 180 degrees
half way up in the south
why is polaris so famous
it's located above the north pole @ the north celestial pole
as the sun moves around the sky once each year, it passes thru a group of 12 constellations. collectively these constellations make up the:
what season are we experiencing in the norther hemisphere when the sun is viewed closest to polaris
on the first day of fall the sun has a declination of 0 degrees. t/f
as seen from here in kent:
a. only the stars close to the north star rise and set
b. all the stars rise & set only during the winter months
c. all stars rise & set
d. some stars rise & set & others are always in the sky
if you were on the equator of the earth, where would you look to find the north star polaris?
a. over your head
b. on the horizon in the direction of the north
c. 41 degrees up in the northern part of the sky
d. can't tell b/c it depends on the time of day
the north-south line above greenwich, england can't be used as the 0 right ascension line b/c:
a. the earth rotates causing the line over greenwich england, to constantly change
b. the sun shifts its position in the background sky each day
c. the line over greenwich, england is not a great circle
geocentric theory
the earth is located at the center of an imaginary transparent sphere (celestial sphere)
heliocentric theory
the sun, not the earth, is at the center of our solar system
retrograde motion of a planet
planets only seem to move in retrograde or backwards motion b/c the earth can pass a planet as it journeys around the sun
exploding star
who is given credit for promoting the heliocentric theory
nicholas copernicus
who discovered the moons of jupiter & noted that nature likes the idea of smaller objects circling larger objects
why did the nova in 1572 make people think more about the sky?
sky isn't constant
the seasons on earth are due to the fact that the earth is sometimes closer to the sun than at other times. t/f
the farther a star is away from us, the more it seems to shift its position against distant background stars as we move around the sun. t/f
how does the aberration of starlight prove that the earth is moving around the sun?
light rays radiating from a star seem to bend into the front of the moving earth. when the earth is on the other side of its orbit, the light seems to bend in the opposite direction & this proves the earth must be moving
a place where one can see a stimulation of the nighttime sky
a group of stars forming a pattern that's traditionally named after its apparent form or a mythological figure
how is the north star found by using the big dipper
draw line thru pointer stars (2 stars in the bucket)
how many constellations are there in the sky
what makes a zodiacal constellation diff from other constellations?
the sun seems to pass thru it
which is not a major advantage of the planetarium?
a. show stars as seen from diff points on earth
b. show effect of earth's rotation on its axis speeded hundred of times
c. show effect of aberration of starlight
d. show how planets, sun and moon seem to move in the sky
the planetarium projects the motion of all nine planets in our solar system. t/f
the planetarium can be used to show the effect of the earth's rotation on its axis. t/f
radius vector
a line joining a planet and the sun
the shape in which the planets travel around the sun (ovals)
not at the center
which planet is covered with red surface dust
which planet is tipped nearly 90 degrees on its axis
which planet travels around the sun in an orbit which is not in the same plane as the other planets?
pluto (part of the reason why its not a planet anymore)
until 1999, which planet is the most distant from the sun
during which month is the earth the farthest from the sun
the only place we know of in our solar system where there is an active volcano other than on earth is?
io, a moon on jupiter
kepler formed his 3 laws of the heliocentric theory based on the data provided by who?
tycho brahe
keplers 2nd law says?
the speed of a planet varies depending how close it is to the sun
what can be obtained by using kepler's 3rd law?
determine the distance btwn a planet and the sun
how did kepler describe the variation in a planet's speed using a radius vector?
a planet travels faster when close to the sun & slower when farther from the sun
uniform velocity
velocity of an object at a constant speed in a constant direction
relative velocity
velocity of an object added to the velocity of a frame
what greek letter represents the change in something?
what basic & useful rule is used to check that a problem in physics is done correctly?
units on right side of equal sign match what you're trying to solve for
when using the relative velocity equation, where is the observer assumed to be located?
stationary outside frame
when using the scientific method, one should:
a. make just 1 hypothesis
b. be careful not to treat a hypothesis as a solution unless and experiment has shown the hypothesis to be virtually true
c. think of experiments before making hypotheses
d. never accept a solution unless sure its 100% correct
the slug & kilogram are units of :
a. time
b. space
c. mass
d. weight
the electromagnetic force will cause 2 neutrons to repel. t/f
which layer of the atmosphere contains our weather?
the earth's gravity tries to pull objects to:
a. the surface of the earth
b. the center of the earth
c. the north pole of the earth
d. the equator of the earth
as seen from the earth's equator:
a. all stars are circumpolar & polaris is at the zenith
b. polaris is on the horizon w/ all other stars rising and setting
c. polaris is on the horizon but only stars close to polaris rise & set
d. polaris is found in diff parts of the sky depending on the time of day
the starting position for measuring right ascension is:
A. vernal equinox
b. location of the sun on the first day of spring
c. both of the above
d. none of the above
a convincing argument for the heliocentric theory is:
a. retrograde motion of planets
b. the seasons on earth
c. phases of the planet venus
d. parallax of stars
e. all the above
we're closest to the sun during the summer months when we have our warmest weather. t/f
what's the basic equation for uniform velocity?
why can't a person save themselves by jumping off the floor of a falling elevator just as it hits the ground?
their relative speed when they hit the ground is the same as the elevators
change in an object's velocity divided by the change in time
terminal velocity
the max speed an object can reach before air resistance prevents it from continuing to accelerate
what is the value of the earth's acceleration due to gravity?
32 ft/ sec.^2
when dropped, why does a feather fall more slowly than a brick
air pushes it back
on the moon, light objects fall more slowly than heavy objects. t/f
differential calculus
if the slope of the line can't be determined by looking at the graph, this gives the slope mathematically; **slope & acceleration
integral calculus
divides area into an infiinite number of rectangles & add the areas together to give the total area; **distance & area
what assumption is made about the beginning velocity of an accelerating object when the equation Δd=1/2at^2 is used?
start at rest
what is obtained by finding the area under the velocity-time graph?
distance moved
what is obtained from the slope of the velocity- time graph
an object that is moving w/uniform velocity could be represented as:
a. an upward sloping line on the velocity time graph
b. a horizontal line on the velocity time graph
c. a downward sloping line on the velocity time graph
one way to approximate the area under the velocity time graph is to divide it into many rectangles. t/f
isotropic property of space
when moving in 2 or more directions simultaneously, motion in 1 dimension doesn't affect motion in other directions
push or pull
grand unification theory (gut)
an attempt to unify all forces into just one
of the 4 classifications of forces, which is the weakest?
of the 4 classifications of forces, which is the strongest?
strong interacting / strong nuclear force
due to the weak interacting force, a neutron removed from an atom will break into 3 particles after about 19 mins. What are the 3 particles?
proton, electron, neutrino
the force dealing w/ charged particles is:
a. gravity
b. weak interacting force
c. strong interacting force
d. electromagnetic force
if a bullet is fired from the gun horizontally over a flat surface while a 2nd bullet is dropped from the same height as the gun what will happen?
both bullets will hit the ground at the same time
the force dealing w/ the breaking apart of the neutron is:
a. gravity
b. electromagnetic
c. strong interacting force
d. weak interacting force
a cannon shoots a cannonball sideways off a cliff. the cannonball hits the ground 6 secs later. if a 2nd cannonball is dropped vertically off the cliff, how long will it take to hit the ground?
a. 6 secs.
b. more than 6 secs.
c. less than 6 secs
when a net force is placed on an object it will:
a. move in a straight line at a constant speed
b. reverse direction
c. not move
d. accelerate
partial success has been achieved in combined which of the following 2 forces into 1 force?
a.gravity & electromagnetic
b.gravity & weak interacting
c. weak interacting & electromagnetic
d. strong interacting & electromagnetic
why does the nucleus not break apart due to all the positively charged protons repelling against each other
strong nuclear force; mesons act like glue & hold the nucleus together
explain the principle behind the neutron bomb
neutrons cause great damage & when great amounts are released, they destroy living tissue
the name given to the unit of force equal to pushing on a 1 slug object and making it increase its velocity 1 ft/sec every sec the force is applied is the:
a. newton
a graph used to determine the acceleration of an object by the slope of the line is?
velocity time graph
weight vs. mass
weight- depends on how hard gravity pulls on the object
mass- constant
if the earth had no atmosphere, a falling person w/a parachute would fall just as fast as another person falling from the same height w/o a parachute. t/f
the acceleration of 25 meters/hr^2 means?
for every hr that goes by the object gains 25 meters/hr in its velocity
on the first day of spring, the position of the sun is on the celestial equator. t/f
according to keplers laws, which planet moves fastest?
a. mars
in the observer's sky, an object that has an altitude of 90 degrees would be found?
a.due north
b.exactly overhead
c. due east on the horizon
d.halfway up the sky due east
e.halfway up the sky due west
where is the starting position for measuring declination in the sky?
celestial equator
the force of gravity is manufactured by?
a. all matter regardless of its size or charge
b.only charged particles
c.only neutral particles
d. only large objects
which of the following is true?
a.gravity pulls w/the same force on all objects
b.gravity pulls harder on the light objs
c.gravity pulls harder on heavy objs
as seen here in kent:
a. all stars rise & set
b.some stars rise & set and others are always in the sky
c.only the stars close to the north star rise & set
d. only during the winter months do all the stars rise & set
if the star vega was in front of you, how long would it take for the earth to rotate so that the star is again in front of you?
sidereal day
if a mass of 1 slug is made to accelerate 1 ft./sec^2, then the net force on the obj is one pound
newton of force
1/5 of a pound; if a mass of 1 kg is made to accelerate 1 meter/sec^2
if a mass of 1 gram is made to accelerate 1 cm/sec^2
net force
causes an obj to accelerate
according to newtons 2nd law, what happens to the acceleration of an object if the mass of the obj is increased?
the smaller the acceleration
what did newtons 4th law state?
theres an attracting force between any 2 masses
if a moving obj doesnt have any force applied to it, not even friction, what will the object do?
move at a constant speed in a straight line
the thrust out the back of the space shuttle causes the shuttle to go forward. which of newton's laws is this an example of?
since its more difficult to make heavy objs move, why does a heavy obj fall just as fast as a light obj?
heavy objs want to move slower, but gravity pulls harder on it
if you push all the way down on the gas pedal, your car will reach a top speed at which it wont go faster. why is this true even if your engine is still applying force to your car?
net force causes an obj to accelerate
what is the final form of energy?
heat (in the form of oscillating motion of the atoms)
scientific method
5 step plan for solving problems
1.define prob
2.do research
3.make hypotheses or guesses at possible solutions
4. experiement
5.state solution
percent of certainty
how sure you are that your solution is correct (1-100%)
one ten millionth the distance btwn the north pole & equator
what is kent's latitude & longitude
latitude: 41 degrees
longitude: 81 degrees
the point directly overhead in the observers sky
what are the degrees of north, south, east & west on the horizon
north: 0 degrees
east: 90 degrees
south: 180 degrees
west: 270 degrees
tells how high an object will be in the sky
imaginary points directly above the north & south poles
the north celestial pole & the south celestial pole
celestial equator
the circle around the sky over the equator
3 limitations (to some theory???)
1. earth rotates
2. earth revolves around the sun
3. objects move, not stars
2 rules pertaining to polaris
1. the altitude of polaris in the sky is equal to the observer's latitude
2. as earth rotates, polaris doesn't appear to move, but all other celestial objects appear to travel in circles around polaris once each day
circumpolar stars
starts at the north pole that don't rise or set
at the equator, all stars rise & set. t/f
4 proofs of heliocentric theory
1. retrograde motion of the planets
2.parallax of stars
4.aberration of starlight
simultaneous motion
when an object moves in 2 dimensions (directions) at the same time
acceleration due to gravity on earth
32 ft/sec^2