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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
definition of lymphoma
malignant proliferations of cells native to lymphoid tissues (lymphocytes and their precursors)
2 main types of lymphomas
definition of leukemia
malignant proliferation of cells native to bone marrow, which often spill over into blood
malignant proliferation of cells native to bone marrow, which often spill over into blood
malignant proliferations of cells native to lymphoid tissues (lymphocytes and their precursors)
hodgekins lymphoma
reed sternberg cell
single lymph node
young adults
small number of cells
avg age is 30
possibly EBV
staging more important in diagnosing
what can you find reed sternbergs cells in
hodgekins lymphoma
choice of therapy for hodgekins lymphoma is based on stage or grade
non-hodgekins lymphoma
multiple node involvement
all ages
85% in B lyphocytes
15% in T cell
nodular better than diffuse
small better than large
stage less important
what are the percentages of the cells that cause non-hogekins lymphoma
b cell 85%
t cell 15%
classifications of non-hodgekins lymphoma
nodular (follicular) vs. diffuse
nodular better prognosis than diffuse

small vs. large
small better prognosis than large
stages of non-hogekins lymphoma (LESS important than for hodgekins)
1: single lymph node
2: 2 or more nodes on same side of diaphragm
3: both sides of diaphragm
4: one or more extralymphatic organ or tissue
b/t hodge and non-hodge which more commonly has bone marrow involvement
ways to classify leukemias:
onset: acute or chronic
cell type: myelogenous or lymphoid
4 types of leukemia
acute leukemias
rapid and usually fatal
survival in months
mostly blasts (immature cells)
white cell count: often increased but decreased in 30%
bone marrow: more than 20% blasts
chronic leukemias
long lasting, slow
survival in years
mostly mature cells
white cell count often increased
blasts usually not increased
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

infiltration of the gums!!!
primitive lymphoid cell
40% of all leukemias
children under 15 y.o.
primary cause of childhood cancer deaths
enlargement of nodes, liver, spleen
best prognosis is kids 2-10 with pre-B cell type
Acute myelogenous leukemia
primitive myeloid cell
granules like myeloperoxidase
Auer rods (cytoplasmic inclusions)
60% of acute leukemias
adults under 60
most common in age 15-39
chemo/bone marrow transplant
chronic lymphocytic leukemia
a mature appearing, but immunologically incompetent LYMPHOCYTE
monoclonal: same cell surface phenotype
2/3 of chronic leukemias
adults over 60
male:female is 2:1
leukocytosis (5-10x more than normal)
then cytopenias
chronic myelogenous leukemia
immature hematopoietic cell (a stem cell)
10-20x more stem cells
philadelphia chromosome
1/3 of chronic leukemia
young adults (10-20) and middle ages (50-60)
blast crisis: decreased response to treatment due to increase in immature cells
bone marrow transplant
clinical features of leukemia
organ enlargement
multiple myeloma
plasma cell disorder
only 1 ab is made by neoplastic cells and 60% it is IgG and 20-25% is IgA, remainder it is only the kappa or lambda light chains
Bence Jones proteinuria: excreting low molc. wt light chains in urine
punched out bone lesions
bone resorption
what makes the diagnosis of multiple myeloma
monoclonal protein and skeletal lesions (punched out lesions)
punched out bone lesions are characteristic of
multiple myeloma
what is an example of a plasma cell disorder
multiple myeloma
what is Bence Jones proteinuria associated with
multiple myeloma...it is when the light chains are secrected in urine