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63 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is not a member of the cytokine family?



a. interleukin


b. tumor necrosis factor


c. T lymphocyte


d. interferon

c. T lymphocyte

The most selective antimicrobial activity (toxic to bacteria but little or no effect on human cells) would beexhibited by a drug that:



A. inhibits cell wall synthesis.


B. inhibits protein synthesis.


C. injures the plasma membrane.


D. inhibits nucleic acid synthesis.

A. inhibits cell wall synthesis

Most cases of lobar pneumonia are caused by:



A. staphylococcus aureus.


B. pneumococcus (streptococcus pneumoniae).C. hemophilus influenzae.


D. group A beta streptococci.

B. pneumococcus

Infections with viruses cause various clinical manifestations. Which of the following is NOT a manifestationof a virus infection?

A. The virus damages or destroys infected cells.B. Formation of inclusion bodies in infected cellsC. Production of endotoxins


D. The virus causes proliferation of infected cells.E. The virus infects cells but causes only an asymptomatic (latent) infection.

C. Production of endotoxins

Coccidioidomycosis is generally an acute, self-limited respiratory infection that subsides without treatment,but a more serious, chronic progressive form is often encountered in:

A. teenagers


B. young male adults


C. immunocompromised persons


D. middle-aged females


C. immunocompromised persons

An immunoglobulin found in blood that is a clump of five molecules (a pentamer) is:



A. IgM


B. IgG


C. IgA


D. IgD


E. IgE

A. IgM

Autoimmune diseases are caused by __________.



A. autoantibodies


B. non-self-antigens


C. self-antigens


D. cytokines

A. autoantibodies

Which of the following is an immunoglobin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity reaction?

A. transfusion reaction to infusion of incompatible blood in person pre-existing antibodies directed against the transfused cells


D. Penicillin reaction w/ blood pressure drop - respiratory distress in a person who has become sensitized to penicillin after another pen. inject.

D. Penicillin

Penicillin is an antibiotic that works by way of which mechanism.

A. competitive inhibition


B. inhibition of metabolic functions


C. inhibition of cell-membrane function


D. inhibition of cell-wall synthesis

D. inhibition of cell-wall synthesis

Which of the following statements does NOT apply to autoimmune diseases?

A. Due to an autoantibody directed against an individual’s own cells or tissue components


B. Often treated by drugs that suppress the inflammatory reaction


C. Inflammation usually responds to penicillin or other bacterial antibiotics.


D. May result from autoantibodies formed against foreign antigens that cross-react with components insimilar antigens possessed by the subject’s own tissues

C. Inflammation usually responds to penicillin or other bacterial antibiotics.

Cytokines that send regulatory signals between cells of the immune system are __________.

A. interferon


B. interleukins


C. monokines


D. tumor necrosis factors

B. interleukins

The desirable effect of the immune system, in which foreign antigens are eliminated, is called__________.

A. hypersensitivity


B. immunity


C. anaphylaxis


D. suppression


E. autoantibody

B. immunity

Which of the following statements regarding the organism causing anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) isINCORRECT?

A. The organism is a gram-positive spore-forming aerobic bacillus.


B. The organism can be used as a bioterrorism/germ warfare agent.


C. Inhalation of anthrax spores may cause a severe pulmonary infection.D. Pulmonary anthrax caused by inhalation of anthrax spores can be prevented by a short (1- to 2-week)course of antibiotics because the organism is sensitive to antibiotics.

D. Pulmonary anthrax...

Which of the following describes an atopic person?

A. An individual with a low T-cell count


B. An individual with a disease of the immune system


C. An individual who is prone to having allergiesD. An individual who rarely has an allergyE. None of the above

C. An individual who is prone to having allergies

__________ are antibodies produced by plasma cells.

A. Immune-response genes


B. Interleukins


C. Interferons


D. Immunoglobulins


E. Complements

D. Immunoglobulins

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic used to classify bacteria?


A. Biochemical and cultural characteristics


B. Shape


C. Antigenic structure


D. Virulence


E. Gram-stain reaction

D. Virulence

__________ are chemical messengers that take part in any function of the immune system.

A. Lymphokines


B. Monokines


C. Cytokines


D. Interleukins


E. natural killer cells

C. Cytokines

________ immunity is characterized by the formation of a population of lymphocytes that can attack anddestroy the foreign material.

A. Acquired


B. Humoral


C. Cell-mediated


D. Hypersensitive


E. Innate

C. Cell-mediated

The fundamental structure of a virus consists essentially of a core containing a single nucleic acidenclosed within a protein coat. What is the outer protein coat called?

A. Capsid


B. Virion


C. Elementary body


D. Mosaic


E. Lipid bilayer

A. Capsid

__________ immunity is associated with the production of antibodies that can combine and eliminate theforeign material.

A. Acquired


B. Humoral


C. Cell-mediated


D. Hypersensitive


E. Passive

B. Humoral

Most of the lymphocytes in the circulation would be classified as what?

A. T lymphocytes


B. B lymphocytes


C. Neither T nor B lymphocytes (natural killer cells, also called NK cells)


D. MacrophagesE. Mast cells

A. T lymphocites

Which of the following is an antiviral substance produced by virus-infected cells?

A. Acyclovir


B. AZT


C. Immunoglobin (antibodies)


D. Interferon


E. Histamine

D. Interferon

Which of the following statement regarding antigens and antibodies is INCORRECT? A. An antigen is a substance that can induce formation of an antibody in a person whose own cells andtissues lack the antigen. B. An antibody is a globulin made by plasma cells (which are derived from B lymphocytes).C. Normally our own immune system will not produce antibodies that are directed against antigenspresent in our own cells and tissues.D. Most antibodies are produced by either helper T lymphocytes (T4 cells) or suppressor T lymphocytes(T8 cells) when they are stimulated by a foreign antigen.

D. Most antibodies...

John Jones was exposed to a person who was ill with an infectious disease, and John received aninjection of globulin to provide protection against the infectious agent to which he was exposed. What isthe class of antibody in the gamma globulin that provides the protection?

A. IgG


B. IgA


C. IgM


D. IgD


E. IgE

A. IgG

One method the body uses to destroy bacteria is by forming a membrane attack complex that producesperforations in the walls of bacterial cells and enveloped viruses, thereby causing their destruction. Whatis the substance producing the membrane attack complex?

A. Interferon


B. Lymphokines produced by T lymphocytes


C. Gamma globulin produced by B lymphocytes


D. Complement


E. Antibodies

D. Complement

True or False? Plasma cells make antibodies.

True

__________________ inhibit the multiplication of viruses that have infected a cell

A. natural killer cells


B. tumor necrosis factors


C. interferons


D. B lymphocytes


E. T lymphocytes

C. interferons

True or False? Our normal bacterial flora (in oral cavity, vagina, etc.) help protect us from infections by inhibiting potentially pathogenic microorganisms that attempt to grow in regions of our body occupied by our normal flora.

True

True or False? The growth of viruses is inhibited by the proper use of antibiotics.

False

True or False? The immune defenses of the host are activated as viruses that invade cells produce new antigens andthe body recognizes these cells as foreign.

True

True or False? Cellular immunity is associated with formation of antibodies that can combine with and eliminate anantigen; the major defense against bacteria and bacterial toxins.

False

An angioma is a:


A. benign tumor projecting from an epithelial surface


B. malignant tumor of the bone


C. malignant tumore arising from epithelial cells


D. benign blood vessel tumor


E. benign tumor of cartilage

A. benign blood vessel tumor

Which of the following statements regarding a dermoid cyst (benign cystic teratoma of the ovary is INCORRECT?


A. A benign tumore composed of several different types of tissue


B. May contain hair and oil derived from glands in the squamous epithelial lining of the cyst


C. Derived from an unfertilized ovum within the ovary that begins to grow and the proliferating cells differentiate into a tumor composed of many different types of mature tissues


D. Sometimes metastasizes to lungs and brain

D. Sometimes metastasizes to lungs and brain

How does our immune system protect us from cancer?


A. It recognizes and destroys abnormal cells, which differ from normal cells.


B. Lymphocytes block lymphatic channels so that tumor cells cannot metastasize through the lymphatics.


C. Proliferation of T lymphocytes declines in response to tumor growth.


D. It destroys viruses that promote tumor growth.

A. It recognizes and destroys abnormal cells, which differ from normal cells.

Which of these is a benign smooth muscle tumor of the uterus?


A. Adenoma


B. Myoma


C. Carcinoma


D. Sarcoma

B. Myoma

True or False? A carcinoma arrises from surface, glandular or parenchymal epithelial tissues; a sarcoma arises from other primary tissues.

True

________________ is characterized by excessive absorption of iron, which accumulates within the body and disrupts organ functions.


A. Sickle cell anemia


B. Tay-Sachs disease


C. Hemophilia


D. Hemochromatosis


E. Phenylketonuria

C. Hemochromatosis

What is a neoplasm of blood cells?



Leukemia

A mother has given birth to an infant with cytomegalic inclusion disease; what does this indicate?


A. The infant is likely to have an abnormal chromosome karyotype.


B. The mother has been previously infected with CMV and the infection became activated during pregnancy, or the mother acquired a CMV infection during her pregnancy.


C. There is no risk of fetal injury or malformation, because the mother can not transmit CMV to the fetus.


D. The virus may have caused genetic abnormalities in the fetal chromosomes, which can be identified by lab tests.

B. The mother has been previously infected with CMV and the infection became activated during pregnancy, or the mother acquired a CMV infection during her pregnancy.

A metastatic tumor is one that:


A. has spread to a location away from its site of origin.


B. shows slow expansion and well-differentiated cells.


C. cannot be classified easily.


D. invades deeply into the tissue where it arose.


E. can sometimes be benign.

A. has spread to a location away from its site of origin.

Which of the following is the genotype for Turner syndrome?


A. 45, X


B. 47, XXX


C. 47, XXY


D. 47, XYY

A. 45, X

True or False. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations often cause ovarian cancer.

True

Absence of a chromosome is called a _______________.

monosomy

Conditions such as leukoplakia or lentigo maligns should be regarded as:

an indication that changes have occurred in tissue that could become cancerous if the site is left untreated

Malignant tumor cells do not wear out and die as normal cells do, but instead they:


A. become immortal and proliferate indefinitely


B. grow rapidly and transform the tissue around them


C. must be killed by high-level immune response


D. die only when they have achieved dominance in the tissues that formed them originally

A. become immortal and proliferate indefinitely

The gene responsible for the fragile X syndrome is ___________.


A. FRMP


B. FMR1


C. FXS1


D. FRM1

B. FMR1

Chromosome deletion occurs when:


A. homologous chromo. in germ cells fail to separate


B. there is absence of a chromosome


C. pieces of chromosomes are exchanged between two non homologous chromosomes


D. a chromosome breaks during meiosis and the broken piece is lost from the cell

D. a chromosome breaks during meiosis and the broken piece is lost from the cell

True or false? A tumor by definition is always malignant.

False

Which is NOT one of the common agents that causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients?


A. Pneumocystis carinii


B. Cytomegalovirus


C. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (tuberculosis)


D. Corynebacterium diptheriae


E. Histoplasmosis

D. Corynebacterium diptheriae

True or false? HIV is found in equal amounts in blood, semen, urine, saliva, and perspiration.

False

Which of the following statements about tumors is true?


A. Tumors are abnormal growths that inevitably endanger the tissue in which they arise.


B. Tumor cells are easily distinguished from normal cells under a microscope.


C. Tumors are the product of a mutation in a normal cell that causes that cell to grow and reproduce itself abnormally.


D. Tumors can only grow in the same tissue that produced them originally.

C. Tumors are the product of a mutation in a normal cell that causes that cell to grow and reproduce itself abnormally.

True or False? A pregnant woman with phenylketonuria does not need to adhere to a phenylalanine-restriced diet because the high concentration of phenylalanine in the woman's blood does not harm the fetus.

False

True or False? Adjuvant chemotherapy attempts to destroy subclinical micrometastases that have already spread from the primary tumor.

True

Which of the following statements about fragile X syndrome is INCORRECT?


A. It causes mental deficiency.


B. It affects a gene on the X chromosome.


C. It is characterized by an excessive number of cytosine-guanine-guanine triplet-repeating sequences that disrupt gene function.


D. There is no relationship between the number of triplet repeats and the severity of the mental deficiency.


E. The diagnosis is made by DNA analysis of cells from the affected person.

D. There is no relationship between the number of triplet repeats and the severity of the mental deficiency.

Which of the following infections is NOT caused by the gonococcus?


A. infection of the urethral mucosa (urethristis)


B. Infection of the bladder mucosa (cystitis)


C. throat infections (pharyngitis)


D. infections of the rectal mucosa (proctitis)


E. infections of the mucosa of the uterine cervix (cervictis)

B. Infection of the bladder mucosa (urethristis)

______________ syndrome occurs in males when there is an extra X chromosome.

Klinefelter's

Precancerous/Precursor condition




Myelodysplastic syndromes



Leukemia

Precancerous/Precursor condition



Lentigo maligna

Melanoma

Precancerous/Precursor condition



Leukoplakia

Oral cavity squamous cell cancer

Precancerous/Precursor condition



Papiloma virus infection

Cervical cancer

Red blood cells containing no normal hemoglobin is the defect in which genetic disease?


A. cystic fibrosis


B. sickle cell trait


C. phenyketonuria


D. hemophilia


E. sickle cell disease

E. sickle cell disease

What is the most common method of treating a benign tumor?

Surgical excision

Which of the following statements is correct?


A. A hormone-dependent tumor is one that produces sex hormones.


B. Adjuvant chemotherapy attempts to destroy subclinical micro metastases that have already spread from the primary tumor.


C. Mutations caused by viruses, chemicals, radiation or other agents do not disturb cell function and do not predispose to tumors.


D. Radiotherapy is always used with surgery for malignant tumors since surgical removal cannot be assured of total removal of tumor.

B. Adjuvant chemotherapy attempts to destroy subclinical micro metastases that have already spread from the primary tumor.