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30 Cards in this Set

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stains for brain cells

neurons- nissl stains rER (not present in axon)


Astrocytes- GFAP


Microglia- lectin

myelin increases conduction velocity by

increasing the space (aka length) constant, which is how far a graded potential can travel before decaying.

oligodendroglia are injured in

MS, PML, leukodystrophies

free n endings

Adelta: fast, myelinated. does pricking pain


C: slow, unmyelinated (ALL OTHER SENSORY FIBERS ARE MYELINATED). does hot/cold/dull pain

meissner and Pacinian

large FAST adapting myelinated.




meissner in glabrous (hairless, ie fingers, lips) skin (dermis). Senses dynamic fine touch and position.




Pacinian does deep (subcutaneous) tissue and joints. vibration and pressure.

merkel and ruffini

large SLOW adapting myelinated.




merkel in basal epidermal layer and hair follicles. merKel does Korners.




ruffini does sustained pressure

permability barrier of the peripheral nerve. What else is impt about this layer?

perineurium is permability barrier w/ tight junctions (similar to BBB). Also must be rejoined in micro surgery for limb reattachment.

neurotransmitter synthd in nuc accumbens

GABA

areas of hypothal for circadian rhythm

suprachiasmatic "you need sleep to be charismatic"

circ rhytm controls nocturnal release of ?

ACTH


prl


melatonin


NE (suprachiasmatic nuc releases NE on pineal gland to stimulate mel release)

REM eye activity due to

PPRF

things that decrease rem sleep

etoh


benzo (thus useful for night terrors and sleepwalking that occur during REM)


barbit


NE

eeg waveforms in sleep

"at night BATS Drink Blood"


awake =Beta (high freq, low amp)


awake (eyes closed) =alpha


n1 theta


n2 sleep spindles and k complexes "two things in n2) (also bruxism "stage 2 hurts your TWOth")


n3delta (low freq, high amp) sleepwalking, betwetting, night terrors "Delta is deep sleep"


REM Beta: dec. motor tone, inc O2 use, variable vitals, erections

the only sense NOT relayed by thalamus

olfaction

limbic system

lIMbic controls IMpulses

output from cerebellum

Purkinje cells to deep nuclei of cerebellum to cortex via superior cerebellar peduncle

AR hereditary forms of parkinson

mutation of PINK1 and DJ1 (normally degrade misfolded proteins). Early onset PD

Huntington dz


mechanism of neuronal death

"Hunt for caged birds"


chr. 4


CAG


birds = decreased Ach and GABA




neurons die bc of NMDA receptor binding and glutamate toxicity

key sx of PICA stroke

lateral medulla structures




"Don't pick a (PICA) horse (hoarseness) that can't eat (dysphagia)"





key sx of AICA stroke

lateral pons structures


"Facial droop means AICA's pooped" (facial n. palsy, would also have loss of efferent limb of corneal reflex)

fx of ACom and PCom aneurisms

ACom : visual field defects (optic chiasm)


PCom: CNIII palsy (down and out w/ ptosis and pupil dilation)

mnemonic for MS

It's a "SIN"


scanning speech


intention tremor


nystagmus

ALS cause and tmt

-mixed UMN and LMN motor only


-can be caused by defect in superoxide dismutase


-riluzole modestly increases survival by decreasing glutamate release





spinal muscular atrophy

aka Werdnig hoffman


autosomal recessive


similar sx to polio


LMN lesion due to anterior horn destruction


usually fatal in infancy

Parinaud synd.

paralysis of conj. vertical gaze due to lesion in superior colliculi (ie the pinealoma compresses the sup. coll., which is just inferior to it). Also, large irregular pupils, ptosis, and impaired convergence

nucleus solitarius

Solitarius does visceral Sensory information for VII, IX and X

nuc. ambiguus

aMbiguus does Motor innervation of pharynx larynx and upper esophagus for IX, X, and XI

dorsal motor nuc of vagus

autonomic parasympathetic fibers (motor) to heart, lungs and upper GI (to splenic flexure) for vagus nerve

gag reflex a and e

a is IX


e is X

loss of central vision

macular degeneration


dry: deposition of yellowish extracellular material (drusen) in and beneath retinal pigment epithelium w/ gradual decrease in vision. "Dry has drusen"


wet: rapid vision loss due to neovascularization. Tmt w/ anti VEGF or laser destroy neovasc.