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13 Cards in this Set

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-produced by monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells
- proinflammatory cytokines involved in immune defense against infection.
- These cytokines increase the expression of adhesion factors on endothelial cells to enable transmigration of leukocytes to sites of infection and reset the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center, leading to increased body temp, which helps the immune system fight infection.
IL-2 (Tcell growth factor)
- produced by helper T cells
- induce activation of CD8+ T cells
- Increases cytotoxic functions of T killer and NK cells; promote production of perforins and IFN-gamma by these cells
- Activates monocytes-macrophages to synthesize to secrete cytokines.
IL-3( Multicolony-stimulating factor)
- produced by activated Tcells
- promotes expansion of early blood cells (hematopoiesis) that differentiate into all known mature cell types
- supports growth and differentiation of T cells from BM through immune response.
- Produced by Tcells, mast cells
- Induces differentiation of native helper T cells (Th0) to Th2 cells. On activation by IL-4, Th2 cells subsequently produce additional IL-4
- Early activation of resting B cells -upregulates MHC II production and govern B cell isotype switching to IgG1 to IgE
- Key regulator in humoral and adaptive immunity
- produced by Th2 and mast cells
- Principal function: activate eosinophils and serve as link between Tcell activation and eosinophilic inflammation.
- Stimulates growth and differentiation of eosinophils and activates mature eosinophils (IL-5 expressed on eosinophils)
- Growth and differentiation- inducing factor for activated T and B cells; induces class- specific B cell differentiation (IgA production)
- produced by macrophages , T cells, osteoblasts
- function in innate and adaptive immunity; in the latter, stimulates growth of B cells that have differentiated into Ab producers
- IL-1, TNF, IL-6 apear to be major factors that induce the acute phase response.
- produced by stromal cells of red BM and thymus
- stimulates proliferation of lymphoid progenitors; important for proliferation during certain stages of Bcell maturation and in Tcell and NK survival, development, and homeostasis.
- IL-7 has recently been shown to have therapeutic potential and safety in several clinical trials designed to demonstrate Tcell restoration in immunodeficiency patients.
-produced by macrophages and certain types of epithelia cells
- potent stimulator of neutrophils in chemotaxis
- Activates "respiratory burst" and release of specific and azurophilic granular contents.
- produced by CD4+
- promotes proliferation of Tcells, thymocytes, and mast cells
- Supports proliferation of some Tcell lines and of BM- derived mast cell progenitors, supports growth of erythroid blast- forming units.
- produced by monocytes, Th2, Bcells
- inhibits activated macrophages; display potent abilities to suppress APCs
- release by cytotoxic cells to inhibit the actions of NK cells during immune response to viral infection
- IL-10 is stimulatory toward certain Tcells, mast cells, and Bcells. It can downregulate the synthesis of other ILs.
- produced by BM stroma
- acts in a manner in similar to IL-6 on hematopoietic progenitor cells
- IL-11 has been shown to synergize with IL-3 to stimulate production of megakaryocyte and myeloid progenitors and to increase number of Ig-secreting B lymphocytes in vivo and vitro
IL-12 (NK stimulatory factor)
- produced by B cells, macrophage
- although it shares functional properties of enhancing cytotoxic function of NK ells and activated T cells with IL-2, IL-12 appears to act through a distinct mechanisms independent of IL-2
- Biological actions of IL-12 include stimulating production of IFN-gamma, by NK, and Tcells, stimulating differentiation of naive Tcells into Th1, and enhancing cytolytic functions of activated NK cells and CD8+ cells
- Growth factor for activated NK-LAK cells
- produced by Tcells
- processes many biological effects similar to IL-4 but appears to have less effect on T or Bcells than IL-4
- Major function of IL-13 on macrophages is to inhibit their activation and to antagonize IFN-gamma
- Important mediator of allergic inflammation and disease.
-Functions of IL-13 overlap considerably with those of IL-4 especially changes induced on hematopoietic cells, but these effects are probably less important given the more potent role of IL-4, IL-13 acts more prominently as a molecular bridge linking allergic inflammatory cells to nonimmune cells, altering physiologic function. it is associated primarily with induction of airway diseases and also has antiinflammatory properties