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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Name 4 types of programming paradigms

Low Level




What is a low level language?

1. A low level language is very similar to the direct language computers understand

2. It tends to have a one to one relationship with machine code

Example of a low level language?

Assembly language

(comprised of mnemonics)

Benefits of low level languages?

1. The code is close to the language directly understood by the processor so...

2. The code will take up as little memory as possible - good for devices with limited memory (microwave, washing machine, etc)

3. Allows you to access memory locations directly

What is a high level language?

These are languages that are written in a way that is closer to human language (as oppose to machine code)

4 features of a high level language?

They are:

1. More portable than low level languages

2. Easy to maintain

3. Can use library routines

3. Good at solving more complex problems

4 points to describe a procedural language

1. Procedural programs will state what to do and describe, step by step, how to do it

2. They use sequence, selection and and iteration constructions

3. The code is written in 'blocks' called procedures or functions

4. There will be a 'main' subroutine that calls each procedure/function as appropriate

What is an object-oriented language?

The attributes and methods to manipulate the attributes are stored together in 'Objects'.

These objects can be used over and over again in different programs.

Example of an object-oriented language?

JAVA - Lets you make classes and creates instances of theses classes - referred to as objects

What are the three main parts of a class?

Class Name

Attributes - data than can be stored about the object

Methods - behaviours/operations that can be applied to the data

Definition of a class?

A template for a real world entity containing an appropriate set of attributes and behaviours

Definition of an object?

An instance of a class with specific data values for each attribute based on a real world entity

What is data encapsulation?

In OOP the attributes and methods that can operate on them are stored together. The only way to access/manipulate the attributes is through the methods provided.
Benefits od data encapsulation?

It ensures data integrity so that the actual class code cannot be tampered with by the user.

Inefficient methods can be changed in the class without affecting each individual instance of that class.

What is inheritance?
The ability of a class to use the variables and methods of a superclass from which it is derived
What is a UML diagram?

The unified modelling consists of a set of descriptive diagrammatic representations to describe the design of a system in order to make effective object-oriented programs
Why do we use UML diagrams?

1. UML diagrams are a standard way to present the design of the system

2. Allows the systems analyst, programmers and clients to communicate easier

3. Provide information in a visual format making it easy to understand.

4. Allows easier system maintenance

What does the ... mean at the bottom of each diagram?
Indicates that there are more operations available and it is likely only the key ones are being shown.
What do object diagrams show?

1. Provide information about instances of a class

2. And how they link within the program

What do sequence diagrams show?

How the objects in the classes interact with one another over a period of time
How to read a sequence diagram?

1. The diagram id read from left to right

2. The lifeline signifies the length of time a class is involved in a process (earliest time is at the top, latest time is at the bottom

3. Activation block shows that an object is executing an operation

Difference between communication diagrams and object diagrams?

Communication diagrams have an ARROW with a label
What do state diagrams show?

How an object may behave through the various processes of a system
What does an activity diagram show?
Shows the activities needed to get an object to a specific state
What do use case diagrams show?

They depict what is meant to be going on in a system rather than the details of how it is done. The stick men (uses) are referred to as actors.
What are the 7 UML diagrams


Use Case






What is declarative programming?
The computer is told what the problem is using facts and rules but not how to solve the problem/how to do it.
Where is declarative programming useful?

It is useful in AI and knowledge based systems such as medical diagnosis and fault finding in equipment.

The value before the brackets


The value inside the bracket

What do we call Predicates and Arguments when they are together

father(X,Y :-parent(x,y), male(x) is an example of what?
What is "?male(X)" an example of?