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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
optimal blood glucose levels
70 mg/dL to 100 mg/dL
Insulin pump is used to treat...
both type 1 and type 2 diabetes
signs of diabetes mellitus
fasting blood glucose higer than 126 mg/dL
hemoglobin A1C levels equal to or greater than 6.5%
symptoms of diabetes
excessive production and passage of urine
excessive thirst
excessive eating or hunger
unexplained weight loss
blurred vision
long term consequences of (type 1 and type 2) diabetes
myocardial infraction
peripheral vascular disease
partial or complete blindness
gastroparesis (stomach stops moving)
bladder dysfunction
unaware of hypoglycemia
sexual dysfunction
foot ulcer and leg amputation (less circulation or undetected injury)
proteinuria (protein in urine)
chronic renal failure
atherosclerotic plaque
1. coronary arteries
2. cerebral arteries
3. peripheral vessels
capillary damage
1. retinopathy (retinal damage)
2a. neuropathy, autonomic
2b. neuropathy, somatic
3. nephropathy (kidney damage)
type 1 v type 2 diabetes: etiology (what causes it)
type 1: Lack of insulin production or production of defective insulin
type 2: Reduced number of insulin receptors; Insulin receptors less responsive
type 1 v type 2 diabetes: incidence onset (when does it start)
type 1: usually younger than 20
type 2: prev. 40+, now seen as young as adolescence
type 1 v type 2 diabetes: endogenous insulin (levels produced by body)
type 1: little to none
type 2: normal to high (early stages) and reduced (later)
type 1 v type 2 diabetes: treatments
type 1: insulin
type 2: weight loss, diet and excersize, oral hypoglycemics, (only 1/3 need insulin)
type 1 diabetes severe consequences
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
Hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HNKS)
type 2 diabetes: comorbid conditions
Coronary heart disease
Microalbuminemia (protein in the urine)
Increased risk for thrombotic (blood clotting) events
Collectively (Obesity, Coronary heart disease, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, Microalbuminemia,
Increased risk for thrombotic events)
insulin-resistance syndrome
metabolic syndrome
Hemoglobin A1C of 5.7% to 6.4%
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels higher than or equal to 100 mg/dL but less than 126 mg/dL
Impaired glucose tolerance test (oral glucose challenge)
insulins restores the diabetic patient’s ability to:
Metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Store glucose in the liver
Convert glycogen to fat stores