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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Primary MoA of Halogenated Organic Compounds toxicity
Biomagnified by animals
MoA of Chlorinated Napthalenes
Blocks carotene conversion to Vitamin A
What does Chlorinated Napthalenes cause?
DDx of Chlorinated Napthalenes
Vetch spp.
Tx of Chlorinated Napthalenes
- Give Vitamin A pre-exposure to protect
2 pathological signs of Chlorinated Napthalenes
- Large, pale kidney
- Cystic dilatation of renal tubules
What are polybromated biphenyls used as?
Fire retardant
What caused the "Poisoning of Michigan"?
Polybromated biphenyls
What disease does Polybromated biphenyls cause?
Chicken Edema Dz
MoA of Polybromated biphenyls and Polychlorinated biphenyls
Converted to Polyhalogenated biphenyls
Lesion caused by Polybromated biphenyls
What is the 'blood agent'?
Two species that Polybromated Biphenyls are bad for
- Bald eagles
- Peregrine falcons
What is Cyanide found in?
Johnson grass
What is Agent Orange?
2, 4, 5 - T
- A dioxin
MoA of Cyanide
Antagonizes energy transport in mitochondria
MoA of Hexachlorobenzene
Inteferes with porphorin metabolism
What does Cyanide cause in horses?
Sorghum cystitis
What does Hexachlorobenzene cause?
What causes sorghum cystitis in horses?
Source of Hexachlorobenzene
Herbicide used on seeds
3 CS of cyanide in horses
- Dribbling urine
- Posterior ataxia
- Full bladder due to no abdominal press
MoA of Hexachlorphene
Uncouples oxidative phosphorylation
- Increases body temperature
Tx of Cyanide (4)
- Rhodanese
- Na Nitrite
- Na Thiosulfate
- Hydroxycobalamin
What condition does Hexachlorphene cause?
Status spongiosus
Lesion caused by Hexachlorphene
Myelin sheath synthesis blocked
What group of animals is most susceptible to Hexachlorphene?
Young animals
Lesion caused by Trichloroethylene
Purkinje cell degeneration
What plant causes Purkinje cell degeneration and would be a DDx for Trichloroethylene?
Solanum dimidatum
Species affected by Trichloroethylene extracted soybean oil meal?
What is a differential for Trichloroethylene extracted soybean oil meal?
Bracken fern
Three similarities between Trichloroethylene extracted soybean oil meal and Bracken Fern
- Both cause aplastic anemias
- Both cause symptoms months after exposure has ceased
- Both affect cattle primarily
Three DDx for Trichloroethylene extracted soybean oil meal
- Bracken Fern
- Melilotus spp.
- Warfarin
4 blood effects of Trichloroethylene extracted soybean oil meal
- Aplastic anemia
- Thrombocytopenia
- Lymphocytosis
- Hemorrhage
What does pneumoconiosis cause in the lungs?
Fibrotic change
Three lesions associated with pneumoconiosis
- Emphysema
- Fibrogenic response
- Clubbed ends of fingers
Which pulmonary irritant has an antibody response develop?
2 lesions of Methylisocyanate
- Severe irritation
- Edema
What does Methylisocyanate cause physically?
Inability to open eyes
What is the chemical name for Teflon?
What pulmonary irritant is extremely deadly to birds?
Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)
Source of ammonia gas
Decomposing urine
What's the most frequent toxic gas found?
Three CS of Ammonia
- Lacrimation
- Shallow breathing
- Nasal discharge
Source of Carbon Dioxide
Decomposing manure, fuel burning heaters, respiration, and the atmosphere
At what level is CO2 fatal?
At what level is CO2 anesthetic?
Three CS of CO2
- CNS depression
- Death
- Increased respiration rate
Source of Methane Gas
What level of methane is required for respiratory arrest?
Two hazards of methane
- Asphyxiation
- Explosive
Source of Hydrogen Sulfide gas
Decomposing organic sulfur compounds (proteins)
Which gas paralyzes the olfactory senses, thus making further exposure more likely?
Hydrogen sulfide
MoA of H2S
Inhibits cytochrome oxidase
- But at a different location than cyanide
Which gas causes an immediate collapse due to respiratory paralysis?
What two gases are responsible for the most deaths in closed animal facilities?
1: CO
2: H2S
What does H2S do to the blood?
Sulfur hemoglobinemia (brown blood)
Two lesions caused by Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
- Pulmonary edema
- Fetalization of lungs
Onset of respiratory disease with NO2
What does CO do to the blood?
Forms carboxyhemoglobin
MoA of CO
Does not allow binding or unloading of O2 from Hgb
What does CO do to the oxygen dissociation curve?
Left shift but has normal PaO2