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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the three complex processes of simple voluntary movement.
1. Identification and localization of targets.
2. Planning the movement
3. Executing
The cortical motor areas are capable of influencing motor behavior both ________ through the brainstem and ________ by corticospinal projections.
1. indirectly
2. directly
T/F - The corticospinal tract is the largest descending fiber tract in the brain.
Lateral corticospinal tract neurons terminate in the _______ part of the ventral horn while the ventral corticospinal tract terminates bilaterally in the __________ cell column which contains neurons controlling _________ musculature.
1. dorsolateral
2. ventromedial
3. axial
Some lateral corticospinal fibers produce monosynaptic excitation of ____ and ____ motorrneurons that innervate distal _____ muscles.
1. alpha
2. gamma
3. flexor
Most corticospinal fibers synapse on and (excite or inhibit) either excitatory or inhibitory interneurons.
Some corticospinal axons synapse in the ____ nucleus as a way to modulate muscle movement.
Red nucleus
By electrical stimulation the primary motor cortex can cause contrations around (single or multiple) joints?
Supplementary or premotor cortex?
Direct stimulation of the supplementary cortex cause _____ limb movement.
1. single
2. multiple
3. bilateral
The main role of the corticospinal tract neurons is to enable control of what?
Distal finger musculature
The supplementary motor and premotor corticies act on distal muscles through what?
Projections to the primary motor cortex
The most common type of damage in the motor cortex areas results from what?
What are negative signs on physical exam?

Positive signs?
Negative signs --> loss of function
Ex. paresis, paralysis

Positive signs --> gain of function
Ex. hyper-reflexia, Babinski reflex
Damage to the corticospinal tract in primary results in profound loss in the ability to do what?
What muscle control is preserved?
Use the wrist and fingers independently to manipulate objects.
Axial musculature is unaffected and they can maintain posture, walk, and climb without difficulty
T/F -- firing of primary cortex neurons beings before the movement onset.
The firing rate of primary cortex neurons encodes what to muscles?
Amount of force -- even for the same motion, a neuron will fire more if more force is requires to execute the movement.
1. T/F - Different neurons fire in relation to different directions of movement.

2. From experiments that determined the property described above, how were neurons characterized?
1. True -- primary motor cortex neurons fire for movements in a preferred direction and not fire for movements in other directions

2. "tuned" quite broadly
What is a motor neuron population vector? What is it a good predictor of?
The direction of movement that is determined by the vectorial sum of a population of motor neurons.

2. The actual direction of movement that population of neurons controls.
Which motor cortex is involved is active in simple finger flexing?
primary motor cortex
Which motor cortex is involved is active in complex finger movement?
Primary and supplementary motor cortex
Which motor cortex is involved is active in mental rehearsal of complex finger movements?
Supplementary motor area
The premotor area is involved with what?
Planning complex movements
Increasing motor skill does what to the primary motor cortex?
Expands the representation of the learned movement in the cortex
What initiates "slow" processes that result in large changes in motor performance over a few weeks?
Brief, daily training epochs
What processes results in significant reorganization in the movement representation within the primary motor cortex?
Acquisition and retention of motor skill
What does rehabilitative training do for victims of small strokes?
improves the loss of digit representation in the primary motor cortex