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16 Cards in this Set

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Bear in mind

to remember a piece of information when you are making decisions or thinking about a matter ((often + that))


cir‧cum‧stanceS2 W1 AC/ˈsɜːkəmstæns, -stəns $ ˈsɜːr-/noun1) [C usually plural] the conditions that affect a situation, action, event etcThe Soviet Union had been forced by circumstances to sign a pact with Nazi Germany.I can’t imagine a circumstance in which I would be willing to ... circumstancesThe rules can only be waived in exceptional circumstances.under ... circumstancesPrisoners can only leave their cells under certain circumstances.2) under no circumstances also in no circumstances (BrE) used to emphasize that something must definitely not happenUnder no circumstances are you to go out.3) under/given the circumstances also in the circumstances (BrE) used to say that a particular situation makes an action, decision etc necessary, acceptable, or true when it would not normally beIt’s the best result that could be expected under the circumstances.4) [U] (formal) the combination of facts, events etc that influence your life, and that you cannot controlHe was a victim of circumstance.5) circumstances [plural] (formal) the conditions in which you live, especially how much money you haveeconomic/financial/personal etc circumstancesWhether or not you qualify for a loan will depend on your financial circumstances.people living in difficult social circumstancesin reduced circumstances(old-fashioned) (=with much less money than you used to have)→pomp and circumstance at POMP COLLOCATIONSadjectivesin/under certain circumstances (=if particular conditions exist) In certain circumstances you may be refused a visa.exceptional/special circumstances The court may allow this evidence in exceptional circumstances.normal circumstances In normal circumstances, a child’s language will develop naturally.particular circumstances (=special or specific) There may be particular circumstances in which this rule will not apply.difficult circumstances Many teachers are doing a very good job under difficult circumstances.suspicious circumstances (=making you think something illegal has happened) Officers said there were no suspicious circumstances surrounding his death.mysterious circumstances (=strange or suspicious) One of their colleagues had vanished in mysterious circumstances.unusual circumstancesunforeseen circumstances (=that you did not realize would happen)tragic circumstances (=extremely sad and unfortunate)extenuating/mitigating circumstances (=conditions that make it reasonable for someone to break the rules or law)phrasesa set/combination of circumstances This was a very unusual set of circumstances.the circumstances surrounding something Police are investigating the circumstances surrounding the accident.due to circumstances beyond somebody’s control Occasionally flights are cancelled due to circumstances beyond our control.


خواستار، خواهان، مشتاق

will‧ingS2 W3 /ˈwɪlɪŋ/ adjective1) [not before noun] prepared to do something, or having no reason to not want to do itwilling to do somethingHow much are they willing to pay?quite/perfectly willingI told them I was perfectly willing to help.2) willing helper/volunteer/partner etc someone who is eager to help etc and does not have to be persuadedI soon had an army of willing helpers.— willingly adverbSixty percent of voters said they would willingly pay higher taxes for better health care.— willingness noun [U]


.تمامیت، درستی، کمال، بی عیبی

in‧teg‧ri‧tyAC /ɪnˈtegrti/ noun [U]1) the quality of being honest and strong about what you believe to be rightpersonal/professional/political etc integritya man of great moral integrity2) (formal) the state of being united as one complete thingthe territorial integrity of the country


خودداری کردن، مخالفت کردن، مقاومت کردن

re‧sistW3 /rɪˈzɪst/ verb1) [I,T usually in negatives] to stop yourself from having something that you like very much or doing something that you want to docannot resist (doing) somethingI just can’t resist chocolate.She can never resist buying new is hard/difficult/impossible to resist somethingIt’s hard to resist an invitation like that.resist the temptation/urge to do somethingShe resisted the temptation to laugh. They only wanted 3 dollars for it, so how could I resist?2) [T] to try to prevent a change from happening, or prevent yourself from being forced to do somethingHe resisted pressure to resign.resist doing somethingFor months the company has resisted changing its accounts system.strongly/fiercely/vigorously etc resistThe proposal was strongly resisted by the police.3) [I,T] to use force to stop something from happeningstrongly/fiercely/firmly etc resistDemonstrators violently resisted attempts to remove them from the building. He was charged with trying to resist arrest.4) [T] to not be changed or harmed by somethingyour ability to resist infection


re‧luc‧tantAC /rɪˈlʌktənt/ adjective

slow and unwilling OPP willing

She gave a reluctant smile.

reluctant to do something

Maddox was reluctant to talk about it.— reluctantly adverbReluctantly, he agreed.


افشاء، در معرض گذاری، پرتودهی

ex‧po‧sureAC /ɪkˈspəʊʒə $ -ˈspoʊʒər/noun1) to danger [U] when someone is in a situation where they are not protected from something dangerous or unpleasantexposure toProlonged exposure to the sun can cause skin cancer.2) truth [U] the action of showing the truth about someone or something, especially when it is badexposure ofthe exposure of his underground political activityexposure asher fear of exposure as a spy3) public attention [U] the attention that someone or something gets from newspapers, television etc SYN publicityThe failure of their marriage has got a lot of exposure recently.4) experience [singular, U] the chance to experience new ideas, ways of life etcexposure toThe visit to Germany gave them exposure to the language.her brief exposure to pop stardom5) be very cold [U] the harmful effects on your body of being outside in very cold weather without protectionWe nearly died of exposure on the mountainside.6) photography [C]a) a length of film in a camera that is used to take a photographI have three exposures left on this roll.b) the amount of time that light is allowed to enter the camera when taking a photograph7) show [C] the act of showing something that is usually hidden8) business [C,U] the amount of financial risk that a company or person has9) direction [singular] the direction in which a building, hill etc facesMy bedroom has a southern exposure.→ INDECENT EXPOSURE


بالا بردن، افزودن، ترقی دادن

en‧hanceW3 AC/ɪnˈhɑːns $ ɪnˈhæns/verb [T]to improve somethingGood lighting will enhance any room.The publicity has enhanced his reputation.— enhancer noun [C]flavor enhancers— enhancement noun [C,U]


en‧vi‧ron‧mentS1 W1 AC/ɪnˈvaɪrənmənt/ noun1) the environment the air, water, and land on Earth, which is affected by man’s activitiesSome of these chemicals are very damaging to the environment.legislation to protect the environmentthe effects of acid rain on the environmentthe government minister for the environment2) [C,U] the people and things that are around you in your life, for example the buildings you use, the people you live or work with, and the general situation you are inThe company had failed to provide a safe environment for its workers.3) [C] the natural features of a place, for example its weather, the type of land it has, and the type of plants that grow in it → habitata forest environmenta very adaptable creature that will eat different foods in different environmentsCOLLOCATIONSverbsprotect the environment We need to take drastic steps to protect the environment.conserve the environment (formal) (=protect it and prevent it from changing or being damaged) People need to live in harmony with nature and conserve the environment.harm/damage the environment The government insists that the dam will not harm the environment.destroy the environment We need to find ways of producing energy without destroying the environment.pollute the environment Nuclear waste will pollute the environment for centuries.clean up the environment It’s about time that we started cleaning up the environment.adjectivesthe natural environment Current methods of farming are damaging the natural environment.the marine environment (=the sea and the creatures that live there)phrasesbe good/bad for the environment Plastic bags are bad for the harmful to the environment Emissions from cars are harmful to the of the environment In developing countries, protection of the environment is not a primary concern.conservation of the environment There are many organizations dedicated to conservation of the environment.damage/harm to the environment A lot of chemicals used in industry cause harm to the environment.the destruction of the environment Logging has led to the destruction of the natural environment.pollution of the environment The waste material must be stored safely to avoid pollution of the environment.the effect/impact on the environment The building’s design will minimize its impact on the environment.COMMON ERRORSDo not say 'hurt the environment'. Say harm the environment or damage the environment.


grab1S2 W3 /græb/ verb (past tense and past participle grabbedpresent participle grabbing) [T]1) with your hand to take hold of someone or something with a sudden or violent movement SYN snatchI grabbed my bag and ran off.Two men grabbed her and pushed her to the ground.Kay grabbed hold of my arm to stop herself falling.grab something from somebody/somethingI managed to grab the gun from Bowen.2) food/sleep (informal) to get some food or sleep quickly because you are busy SYN snatchWhy don’t you go and grab some sleep?Hang on while I grab a cup of coffee.Let’s grab a bite to eat before we go.3) get something for yourself to get something for yourself, sometimes in an unfair wayTry to get there early and grab good seats.Bob tried to grab all the profit.4) chance/opportunity also grab at something (informal) to take an opportunity, accept an invitation etc immediatelyI think you should grab your chance to travel while you’re young.She grabbed the opportunity to go to America.Melanie grabbed at the invitation to go.This is our chance to grab a slice of this new market.5) get attention to get someone’s attentionThe book is full of good ideas to grab your students’ attention.The plight of the refugees immediately grabbed the headlines (=was the most important story in the newspapers) .6) how does something grab you? (spoken) used to ask someone if they would be interested in doing a particular thingHow does the idea of a trip to Spain grab you?grab at/for somethingphrasal verbto quickly and suddenly put out your hand to try and catch or get somethingI grabbed at the glass just before it fell.Lucy grabbed for the money.


انجام دادن، اجرا کردن

im‧ple‧ment1W3 AC/ˈɪmplment/ verb [T]to take action or make changes that you have officially decided should happen

implement a policy/plan/decision etcWe have decided to implement the committee’s recommendations in full.— implementation /ˌɪmplmenˈteɪʆn/ noun [U]the implementation of the peace plan


انگیختن، تحریک کردن، تهییج کردن

mo‧ti‧vate/ˈməʊtveɪt $ ˈmoʊ-/verb [T]1) to be the reason why someone does something SYN driveWas he motivated solely by a desire for power?motivate somebody to do somethingWe may never know what motivated him to kill his wife.2) to make someone want to achieve something and make them willing to work hard in order to do thisA good teacher has to be able to motivate her students.motivate somebody to do somethingThe profit-sharing plan is designed to motivate the staff to work hard.


peer/pɪə $ pɪr/noun [C]1) [usually plural] (formal) your peers are the people who are the same age as you, or who have the same type of job, social class etcAmerican children did less well in math than their peers in Japan.Staff members are trained by their peers.→ PEER GROUP→ PEER PRESSURE2) a member of the British NOBILITY → House of Lords → peerage→ LIFE PEER


pri‧orW3 AC/ˈpraɪə $ praɪr/adjective1) existing or arranged before something else or before the present situation SYN previousYou do not need any prior knowledge of the subject.Changes may not be made without the prior approval of the council.Vegetarian meals are provided by prior agreement.Some prior experience with the software is needed.2) prior warning/notice a warning or announcement made before something happensThe society must give customers prior notice before changing the cost.The bomb exploded without any prior warning.3) prior to something (formal) beforeAll the arrangements should be completed prior to your departure.4) prior claim a person’s right to something which is considered more important than another person’s right to the same thingHis own children have a prior claim to the business.


in‧ev‧i‧ta‧bleW3 AC/ɪˈnevtəbl/ adjective1) certain to happen and impossible to avoidA further escalation of the crisis now seems is inevitable (that)It’s inevitable that doctors will make the occasional mistake.inevitable consequence/resultDisease was an inevitable consequence of poor living conditions.2) the inevitable a situation that is certain to happenOne day the inevitable happened and I got a speeding ticket.


stag‧nant/ˈstægnənt/ adjective1) stagnant water or air does not move or flow and often smells bada stagnant pond2) not changing or making progress, and continuing to be in a bad conditiona government plan to revive the stagnant economy