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The Evolution of Leadership Theory

When was the concept of leadership first discovered? Why haven’t we mastered the art and science of leadership and why do we continue to examine and remain fascinated by it today? One could easily argue that leadership theory is as old as humanity itself. What is it that enables some members of their society to rise up through the ranks to leadership positions while others fail? The earliest attempts to answer these and other questions were the historical biographies written about some of the world’s great leaders. Other works by various scholars, psychologists, and sociologists not only attempted to define leadership, they revealed methods and techniques to hone the very skills necessary in becoming a great leader. Let us briefly explore some of history’s most prominent theories.

Trait Theory

The first studies of leadership focused on fixed personal characteristics and innate qualities one possessed known as traits. Referred to as “The Great Man (or Woman) Theory,” one’s leadership effectiveness was said to be influenced by their intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability. Trait-based leadership poses a few problems: how does one develop a trait? Also, leaders who share the same traits oftentimes act differently. For instance, throughout history, there have been self-confident and intelligent leaders.
However, some were leaders of righteousness while others led followers down paths of destruction. Those that subscribe to trait-based leadership tend to favor the notion that leaders are born not made. Although it is true that leaders who have certain traits tend to excel, the evidence is equally clear that education and training can improv

Psychodynamic Theory

In the 1930s and 1940s, building upon the pioneering work of Sigmund Freud, experts introduced the psychodynamic theory of leadership. This theory assumes that the world can be a hostile, unpredictable, and unforgiving environment and that followers look for leaders who can make sense of such a turbulent conditions and crisis situations. This is a personality-based approach to leadership study that argues that followers and leaders are drawn to their roles, and achieve success in those roles by virtue of personality type, overcoming personal challenges and organizational crisis in their own lives, and sharing their lessons learned with their followers. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® is related to this theory in it too concentrates on one’s psychological make-up and personality. The ultimate goal of the psychodynamic theory is for people to understand themselves, to identify their preferred approaches to situations and then work within the constraints of their preferences to achieve success.41 Leaders who a more self-aware have a better understanding of who they truly are and are able to use this information to improve their leadership.

Skills Theory

This theory focuses on leaders who are emotionally intelligent and can successfully solve problems. Emotional intelligence centers on emotional awareness and control one has of their emotions and how this impacts their leadership effectiveness. Some see emotions as “windows” to one’s psychological state or underlying intentions. Since people tend to think and act with emotion, this theory argues that skill and knowledge are involved when properly managing and dealing with emotion. For example, let’s say you just received a bout of inaccurate, negative feedback from your supervisor-in front of your peers! How would you respond? Would you retaliate right there to defend your image or compose yourself and thoughts to rationally discuss the situation with the supervisor privately? The second element, problem solving, proposes that leaders are effective if they can assist followers in solving personal, organizational, and career-related problems. In these situations, a leader’s cognitive and social skills, coupled with their own life experiences, influence their leadership effectiveness.42

Style Theory

Is your supervisor friendly, approachable, and concerned about you, or does he or she consider the work to be done more important? This theory concentrates on two types of leadership: task- or production-oriented leadership which focuses on initiating structures and paths for followers to perform effectively and people- or relationship-oriented leadership which considers fostering good relationships between the leader and followers. Both leadership styles influence followers’ performance and satisfaction. Leaders who lack either one of these behaviors can be ineffective than those who possess both styles. The emphasis on one’s behavior and style changed the view of developing leadership more promising since behaviors are more easily changed than traits.43

Situational Leadership Theory
Introduced in the 1980s, management expert, Mr. Ken Blanchard along with professor, Dr. Paul Hersey created the acclaimed Situational Leadership Model (see Situation Leadership Model). This theory focused on a follower’s competence and commitment, or development level (DL) in completing a specific task and the use of four different leadership styles to influence the follower’s development. These styles are directive, coaching, supporting, or delegating. For example, suppose the task is to make a decision. If the leader determines the follower has little competence and commitment to accomplish this task (DL1), the leader will use a directive style, which may include providing the follower detailed instructions and a mandatory deadline.

Situational Leadership Theory

If it is determined that the follower has a low level of competence but some commitment (DL2), the leader should use a coaching style, presenting ideas to the follower and asking for input. However, if the leader believes the follower is highly competent but lacks commitment (a DL3), he or she will use a supportive style of leadership by soliciting solutions from the follower and encouraging the follower in his or her efforts. Finally, when the follower demonstrates high levels of competence and commitment (DL4), the leader will use a delegating style, empowering the follower to make and implement decisions within limits set by the leader.44 The crux of the Situational Leadership theory is that it is task specific. For instance, a follower may be at DL 4 in one task and at DL2 for another. The arc in the model with three arrows represent how a leader should move among leadership styles by appropriately matching his or her leadership style with the follower’s development level based on the task to effectively lead the follower.

Contingency Theory

Another popular situational approach to understanding leadership is Contingency Theory. This theory matches specific leaders to particular situations in order to achieve the most success. Unlike Situational Leadership, Contingency Theory suggests that leaders cannot change their behaviors. Therefore, leaders are moved or “swapped” into and out of various situations based on three critical situational factors.

Contingency Theory



Leaders are moved or “swapped” into and out of various situations based on three critical situational factors. These are:


Leader-Member Relations. The degree to which the leaders is trusted and liked by members of the group and their willingness to follow the leader.
Leader’s Position Power. The authority the leader has to reward or punish based on his or her organizational position. The power of the leader is based on the position held within the organizational position and authority.
The Task Structure. This refers to how well a group’s task(s) have been described. Highly structured means the tasks are clearly understood and easy to understand. Unstructured means the tasks are difficult to understand and are complex or difficult to execute.45

Contingency Theory

To determine a leader’s effectiveness, Fred Fiedler suggests that the interaction between the leader and the followers must be favorable to the situation. The most favorable situation is when leader-member relations are good, the task is highly structured, and the leader has a strong position power.

Contingency Theory

Research shows that task-oriented leaders are more effective in highly favorable and highly unfavorable situations whereas relationship-oriented leaders are more effective in situations of intermediate favorableness.

Task-oriented leaders vs Relationship-oriented leaders

Research shows that task-oriented leaders are more effective in highly favorable and highly unfavorable situations whereas relationship-oriented leaders are more effective in situations of intermediate favorableness.

Relationship-oriented leaders

Relationship-oriented leaders usually exhibit task-oriented behaviors under highly favorable situations and display relationship-oriented behaviors under unfavorable intermediate favorable situations.

Task-oriented leaders

Task-oriented leaders frequently display task-oriented in unfavorable or intermediate favorable situations but display relationship-oriented behaviors in favorable situations.46

Path-Goal Theory

In the Path-Goal Theory of leadership, once the leader assesses their followers and the situation, leaders choose one of four behaviors: supportive, directive, participative or achievement-oriented to lead their followers to success. Though somewhat similar to the Situational Leadership approach, the Path-Goal Theory views the leader as a trail-blazer, creating the conditions and paving the way for subordinates to succeed. Unlike the earlier trait theories, it relies on behaviors which can be studied and taught.47

Leadership-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

In the 1990s, Leadership-Member Exchange Theory was introduced to better explain the relationships between leaders and followers. It emphasized that leaders must develop specialized relationships with each of their followers instead of treating all their followers the same way.

The LMX Theory identified two categories of followers:

in-group and out-group

In-group

The in-group followers received preferential treatment from the leader such as receiving privileged information, highly sought after resources, and mentoring.

Out-group

Out-group followers received support from their leader, but were not treated as well as in-group followers. Therefore, the in-group followers enjoyed higher-quality relationships with their leader then do out-group followers. Followers must demonstrate their competence and loyalty (commitment) to their leader in order to become in-group followers.48

Authentic Leadership Theory

Recent increases in corporate lies, corruption, and other dishonorable behaviors sparked a demand for a more ethical approach to leadership. In 2005, Avolio and Gardner published their work on Authentic Leadership Theory. This theory argues that effective leaders are true to themselves and others, have positive psychological states, and adhere to strong morals and values.

Authentic Leadership Theory



The theory of authentic leadership is not new. In fact, it can be traced back some 2,400 years to ideas pondered by Socrates, an ancient Greek philosopher. His thoughts inspired Shakespeare to include the statement,

“This above all: To thine own self be true, and it must follow, as the night the day. Thou canst not then be false to any man.”

Authentic leaders must first understand



Authentic leaders must first understand where they came from, their life experiences, their strengths, and how they behave toward others. This self-knowledge determines how they can invest in and contribute to the development of self and others.

Authentic Leadership Theory



One’s positive psychological capital

a psychological state consisting of confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience

Authentic Leadership Theory



Positive psychological capital/Positive organizational vision, strategy, and culture

One’s positive psychological capital (a psychological state consisting of confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience) coupled with a positive organizational vision, strategy, and culture can produce a framework allowing the leader to respond favorably to events that can trigger positive self-development.

Self-awareness and Self-regulated behavior

Through increased self-awareness and self-regulated behavior, one becomes an authentic leader.49

FRLD

Full Range Leadership Development

FRLD is not just another theory that was “pulled from a hat.”

Theory and research on FRLD is connected to and built upon a long and interesting history. For centuries, man has considered the concept of leadership. But it was not until the 20th century that the disciplines of political science, psychology, sociology, history, anthropology, and management converged to make major contributions toward our understanding of leadership.

(1) So how does FRLD relate to the historical leadership theories that we’ve just reviewed.

We should consider a historical theory to be a useful tool that explains how and why things happen, rather than an abstract and useless idea. Each of these historical theories had distinct advantages and disadvantages which provided the foundation on which the FRLD model evolved (i.e. each of them may be a useful tool at the appropriate time).

(2) So how does FRLD relate to the historical leadership theories that we’ve just reviewed.

Effective leaders vary in the extent to which they display a repertoire of leadership behaviors, ranging from active and more effective leadership to passive and less effective leadership. To fully develop the potential of subordinates who can achieve extraordinary levels of success requires an understanding of a full range of leadership behaviors suitable for today’s complex world…thus FRLD was born.

Progress Check



The _________________Leadership Theory considers one’s ability to complete a specific task and the use of four leadership styles to aid in his or her development.

Situational

Progress Check



The _________________ Leadership Theory states that a person’s ability to lead depends on his or her intellect, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and social skills.

Trait

Progress Check



The _________________ Leadership Theory focuses on the argument that a person’s ability to lead depends on his or her emotional intelligence, awareness, and control.

Skills

Progress Check



The _________________ Leadership Theory believes that pairing a leader to a specific situation is the most effective method because leaders cannot adjust their behaviors.

Contingency

Progress Check



The __________________ theory emphasizes that leaders must develop specialized relationships with each of their followers instead of treating all their followers the same way.

Leadership-Member exchange

Why Full Range Leadership Development (FRLD)?

The many dramatic changes and challenges we face today such as shifting demographics, workforce diversity, international relations, geographic political power, innovations in technology, threats to the environment, economic (global and national), and collaborative business practices calls for a more proactive leader who motivates employees to perform beyond expectations. Full Range Leadership Model is a leadership training system that suggests leaders perform throughout a gamut of leadership behaviors ranging from active and effective behavior to a more passive and less effective behavior. A full range of leadership behaviors is essential in today’s complex world.

FRLD is unique in that it requires us to view leadership as a system.

FRLD is unique in that it requires us to view leadership as a system. Its success relies not only on the leader’s actions but also the follower and the situation. Together, these three elements working in concert with one another, like gears in a mechanical system, creating the core of the leadership system

These three elements affect each other differently and in different ways. What’s more, this core is surrounded by less-obvious components like resources, peers and associates, evaluations, rewards and punishments, developmental relationships, opportunities, and challenges which affect the three elements of the core. Holistically, everything (the core elements and the other components) are susceptible to change over time and are limited by existing boundaries and constraints.50

Leader

A leader is someone who influences others to achieve a goal. They are typical men and women who, though not perfect, strive to display ethical behavior, virtues, and character strengths in their actions as they battle their own vices and idiosyncrasies. They possess certain personality traits like confidence and extraversion as well as a personal set of values, beliefs, and ideas regarding how things are and how they should be.51

Follower

A follower is someone who chooses to follow a leader because of the leader’s character, abilities, and vision. Like leaders, followers are not perfect and are usually not selected by the leaders, but are inherited based on the situation. Encourage subordinates to be outstanding followers and aspiring future leaders. Great followers possess a love of learning and a passion to apply what they have learned. They are motivated, creative, and possess a high level of commitment to each other, the leader, and the organization.

(1) Situation

There are many ways to describe a situation. Merriam-Webster describes situation as a “relative position or combination of circumstances at a certain moment” or a “critical, trying, or unusual state of affairs.

(2) Situation

According to FRLD principles, a situation describes the relative circumstances, position, or context that surrounds the leaders and followers. From a historical standpoint, social culture, world events, and the ways we thought in particular time influence the situation.

(3) Situation

For example, consider American society during World War II and the 1940s. Whether at home or abroad, every American felt they played an important part in the outcome of the war. The US Government promoted rationing of food, clothing, fuel, and services and concentrated on mass military recruitment, homeland defense, and air raid and invasion response procedures. Military and civilians worldwide witnessed death and were vulnerable to enemy propaganda that foretold a horrific future. All this influenced situations and leadership actions throughout this time period.

(4) Situation

In the 1960s and early 1970s, our nation experienced “Beatle mania” and dealt with discrimination, drugs, the Vietnam War, and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. These significant events shaped the way people and leadership thought and acted which was significantly different then the 1940s.

(5) Situation

Today, America and its military face economic crisis with budget cuts and increased unemployment and fuel prices as businesses compete fiercely for revenue and resources. Terrorism, military manning reductions, environmental issues, and the search for an alternative fuel are just a few of the many issues we face today which demand leaders who possess a full range of leadership to navigate through these challenging times. Therefore, followers seek dynamic and versatile leaders who can save them from difficult and complex situations like these. Today, followers need full range leaders.

To help further clarify how a leader’s effectiveness is the result of the leader, follower and the situation, consider the following analogy:

To form a tornado, warm moist air (leader) shoots upward where it meets colder, dryer air (follower). The warm air is lighter than the cooler, air creating a strong updraft within a thunderstorm environment (situation). As the warm moist air rises, it may meet varying wind directions at different altitudes (both less-obvious components). If these varying winds are staggered in just the right manner with sufficient speed (another less-obvious component), they will act on the upward rising air, spinning it like a top. The storm will begin to show visible rotation, often forming a wall cloud.

Analogy (cont.)

However, inside the storm these spinning winds can begin to form a tornado.53 To be full range leaders, you must demonstrate the right behaviors and understand how and why these behaviors influence others.

In the FRLD Process Model (see below), notice how the personal attributes of the leader and follower, their relationship, and the use of the FRLD behaviors (passive, transactional, and transformational) result in an array of follower responses based on the FRLD behavior used. Transformational leadership (the most effective) generates the most significant outcomes that begin with the follower themselves to include: empowerment, extra effort, increased satisfaction with leader, more creativity, reduced stress, improved performance that lead to promotions. FRLD improves leadership effectiveness by applying the right leadership behavior to a particular follower and situation that produces the greatest outcomes.

pg 203

pg 203

To summarize, FRLD, like other complex systems, is comprised of several parts that are interdependent of one another. Throughout this system, energy (effort and motivation), resources, and information “flows” exist between the components. The amounts of these flows depend on the leader behaviors, follower actions, and the situation, which can either contribute or detract from the system’s performance.

FRLD requires today’s leaders to consider all the components of the leadership system and be willing to work with all the other components like:

Developing relationships with leadership, peers, and subordinates,
 Taking advantage of opportunities as they come available,
 Efficiently using available resources,
 Properly evaluating situations and the performance of followers,
 Rewarding appropriately (and disciplining accordingly), and
 Identifying areas in yourself, your followers, and the work place to improve.

FRLD Leadership Behaviors

Passive Leadership Behaviors

Laissez-Faire


Management by Exception-Passive (MBE-P)

Laissez-Faire

Those who exercise laissez-faire leadership view the development of their subordinates as someone else’s problem and demonstrate laziness. They abandon or pass on their responsibilities, fail to respond urgently to critical situations, remain indifferent toward important issues, and are hesitant to make decisions or deal with chronic problems. Since these leaders are usually absent from their duties and place of work, relationships with subordinates suffers. Subordinates are less likely to consider those who use this laissez-faire behavior as their leader. You could say that this behavior of leadership is missing something: the leadership.

Management by Exception-Passive (MBE-P)

MBE-P is the “if it isn’t broke, don’t fix it” leadership approach. MBE-P is where one elects to sit back and wait for things to go wrong before taking action and intervenes only if standards are not being met based on in-place control measures and standards. With that in mind, MBE-P is considered a little more effective then the laissez-faire behavior since subordinates know that leadership will hold them accountable if they fail to meet standards of performance or comply with policies and procedures. As a result, followers will pay close attention to what is important to leadership. However, followers tend to not trust those who do not take a more active leadership approach and will demonstrate little commitment to this person and the organization. Basically, the passive leadership behavior produces passive employee compliance.

Management by Exception-Passive (MBE-P)



Subordinates usually react to a leader’s passive behavior with two typical responses:

social loafing and free riding.

Social Loafing

occurs when group members put less effort in their collective work than when they work alone. They are able to hide their inactivity in the group since there are no mechanisms to keep them individually accountable for their performance. Since passive leaders model loafing, followers typically feel justified in their own laziness.

Free Riding

this can occur when group members pick up the lazy leader’s slack. The free-riding leader will then unfairly reap the rewards earned by the rest of the group as he or she dumps their responsibilities on the followers, catching a free ride to a desired outcome.

Transactional Leadership Behaviors

Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A)


Contingent Reward

Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A)

This leadership behavior keeps people and processes in control, monitoring and controlling followers through forced compliance with rules, regulations, and expectations for meeting performance standards and behavioral norms. MBE-A exists in structured system with detailed instructions, careful observation, and active supervision.

Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A)

Effectively using MBE-A reduces organizational uncertainties, avoids unnecessary risks, and ensures important goals are being achieved. It also reduces the temptation for employees to shirk their duties or act unethically and aids members in meeting defined performance objectives. When used occasionally or in critical (life and death) situations, MBE-A is appropriate. Followers even appreciate the MBE-A leadership behavior as it reduces followers’ uncertainties regarding their purpose.

Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A)

Though MBE-A may seem like it is not the most effective way to lead people (sounds more like managing), it can be quite effective in a number of situations. When working in dangerous or critical career fields, MBE-A is essential in ensuring obedience to rules and regulations that maintain safety standards, organizational and environmental compliance, and duty performance. It also plays an important role in providing unfailing support and services that customers are dependent upon.

Management by Exception-Active (MBE-A)

As explained later in Intellectual Stimulation, MBE-A also uses rational decision-making and an active approach to solve problems. However, once a problem has been identified, consider using collaboration by getting subordinates involved in devising solutions instead of commanding them into a pre-determined action. A successful leader who involves their followers in the decision-making process can improve employee engagement, commitment, and attitude toward their organization as well as enhance their personal development.

Contingent Reward

Transactional Leadership and Contingent Reward involve the constructive transaction between the leader and the follower. These transactions formulate a sort of “contract” where the leader sets goals, identifies ways for the subordinate to reach these goals, and supports the follower in meeting these expectations. The follower is required to perform assigned tasks to a specified performance level. When the follower fulfills the leader’s expectations, a reward is provided to reinforce the demonstrated positive behavior

Contingent Reward

For example, Transactional Leadership can have a major impact on parenting, considered one of the noblest forms of leadership. Children (followers) are motivated by a variety of rewards like affection, attention, allowance, ice cream-even stickers! They will exhibit behaviors desired by their parents (or leaders) like cleaning their rooms, acting appropriately in public, and performing well in school. However, when their actions do not meet the expectations set by the parents, punishment is used to curb those negative behaviors and rehabilitate the child’s behavioral, and developmental, performance.

Contingent Reward

Rewards should be given to staff members when they earn them--that's the principle of contingent rewards. It has been said, “Fat, happy rats don't run mazes.” B. F. Skinner realized this since he had no success with lab rats running mazes by stuffing them with cheese beforehand. A fundamental principle of motivation is to use rewards to reinforce desired behaviors if they occur. When they don't occur (i.e., performance is poor), withhold the rewards.57 Take a few moments to further examine the concept of motivation.

Motivational Theories

Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. These reasons may include basic needs such as food or a desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being, or ideal. The motivation for a behavior may also be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism or morality

Motivational Theories

According to Geen, motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of human behavior.

Motivational Theories

Motivation refers to the reason(s) for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, etc. These reasons may include things we need (food, job, etc.) and/or things we want (new car, hobbies, etc.). They may also be more complex reasons such as morality, concern for others, or our own state of being. According to Geen, motivation refers to the [level of] initiation, direction, intensity, and/or persistence by which we engage in human behavior.

There are many motivational theories:

Drive Reduction Theories (Hull)
 Cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger)
 Need Achievement Theory (McClelland)
 Interests Theory (Holland)
Need Hierarchy Theory (Maslow)
Two-factor theory (Herzberg)

There are many motivational theories:

 Existence, Relatedness & Growth (ERG) theory (Alderfer’s)
 Self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan)
 Goal-setting theory (Locke)
 Unconscious motivation (Freud)

There are many motivational theories:

Some of these theories use the term ‘intrinsic’ motivation, others use the term ‘extrinsic’ motivation, and some use both terms. (Some of these theories label motivation in two categories:

Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome. It initiates from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehavior. Competition is in an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic motivators.

Intrinsic Motivation

Educational psychologists have studied intrinsic motivation (motivation that initiates from inside an individual) since the 1970s, but there is currently no universal theory to explain the origin or elements of intrinsic motivation.

Though it is thought that people are more likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:

• Attribute their results (work, family, education, etc.) to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in),
• Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck or chance),
• Are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just memorizing it in order to achieve good grades or get recognition.

Theory of 16 Basic Desires or Sensitivity Theory

Theory of 16 Basic Desires or Sensitivity Theory

Steven Reiss

human individuality may be too diverse to be described adequately in terms of categories such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Reiss also states that theories

Steven Reiss

supporting intrinsic-extrinsic motivation cannot be validly defined because human motives do not divide into just two kinds so easily (para. 3). Current research on intrinsic motivation describes it as being more multifaceted (i.e. made up of 16 basic desires - see table on next page). Dr. Reiss59 calls this the Theory of 16 Basic Desires or Sensitivity Theory (p. 7).

Steven Reiss

All 16 basic motives have been validated against criterion behavior outside laboratories and experiments (see Havercamp & Reiss, 2003). Concurrent validity and social desirability studies also support the multifaceted model.

Steven Reiss

The sensitivity model holds that 16 genetically distinct desires combine to determine many psychologically significant motives. The model supports numerous predictions about behavior and provides standardized measures

Extrinsic and Intrinsic and sensitivity model Motivation summarized

As a leader, it is important know about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and to know that at least 10 theories try explain both concepts. However, it is more important to recognize that “motivation” is more complicated than simply categorizing it as intrinsic or extrinsic.

Extrinsic and Intrinsic and sensitivity model Motivation summarized

It should be obvious from looking at Table 1, that many things play a role in determining motivation and that, as Dr. Reiss points out, “Even though external factors have influence, the motivation for our actions, decisions, and behaviors comes from within us.” Understanding this concept is the key to your ability to apply Full Range Leadership most effectively.

The next few paragraphs expand on a few of the motivational theories referenced earlier.



Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory



Operant Conditioning Model

Operant Conditioning Model

Operant Conditioning Model

Renowned behaviorist, B.F. Skinner, believed that one’s internal thoughts and motivations could not be validated to explain their behavior. Rather, he suggested that only external (extrinsic), observable influences lead to one’s behavior. Therefore, Skinner developed a theory that considers a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.

Operant Conditioning Model

Operant Conditioning Model

Operant conditioning associates a specific behavior and a consequence for that behavior. Skinner coined the term operant that refers to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences"

Reinforcement

Reinforcement rewards a specific behavior and increases the likelihood the behavior will continue.

There are two types of reinforcement:

Positive Reinforcement


Negative Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement involves favorable actions, results, or outcomes that a leader presents to a follower after the follower demonstrates a desired behavior. In other words, adding something the follower thinks is good in order to ‘reinforce’ a desired behavior. Examples of positive reinforcement include public recognition, praise, or awards.

Negative Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement includes the removal of unpleasant, unfavorable actions or events the follower is currently experiencing that occurs after they have displayed a desirable behavior, or taking something away that the follower thinks is ‘bad’ in order to ‘reinforce’ a behavior. Examples of this include removing member’s unfavorable information file (UIF) and removing restrictions placed on a member.

Punishment

Punishment is where the leader presents an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in undesirable behavior.

Two Types of Punishment

Positive punishment


Negative punishment

Positive Punishment

Positive punishment occurs when the leader applies or presents an unfavorable action or result to a follower who has demonstrated an undesirable behavior…adding something to stop a behavior from occurring.

Give examples of positive punishment

Examples of positive punishment include applying restrictions to a member, issuing a UIF, and implementing additional duties.

Negative Punishment

Negative punishment occurs when a leader removes something valued by the follower after they have demonstrated an undesirable or unacceptable behavior...taking something away to stop a behavior from occurring.

Give eamples of negative punishment

Examples of this include taking or withholding a member’s freedoms and liberties, revoking a promotion, and taking away one’s position and/or responsibilities.

McClelland’s Need Theory

This theory argues that for a reward to be appropriate, accepted, and effective; it must fulfill a member’s needs. David McClelland, a well-known psychologist, has been studying the relationship between needs and behavior since the late 1940s.

Based on McClelland’s, theory, there are three primary needs a person must satisfy to be motivated:

The need for achievement is a desire where one accomplishes something difficult or masters particular objects, ideas, or tasks independently or with little help. The Army considered this need with their slogan “Be All You Can Be.”



People with a high need for affiliation prefer to spend more time maintaining social relationships and wanting to be accepted and cared for. Being part of a prominent or successful organization is another example of the need for affiliation. This need is the focal point for various organizations like the Marine Corps’ “The Few, The Proud, the Marines.”



The need for power reflects an individual’s desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve. People with this need prefer to work and consider discipline and self-respect as priorities.61 People who are motivated by power prefer positions where they can influence outcomes. For instance, corporate leaders pursue upper-echelon positions within their organizations to control the direction in which their business is going.

Contemporary Motivation

Rewards 
1st tear System level
2nd tear Supervisory
3rd tear Personal

Rewards


1st tear System level


2nd tear Supervisory


3rd tear Personal

Rewards 
1st tear System level
2nd tear Supervisory
3rd tear Personal

Rewards


1st tear System level


2nd tear Supervisory


3rd tear Personal

In the Leader Influence chapter you will learn more about contemporary motivation, which categorizes a member’s commitment to the organization into three levels: membership (lowest level), performance (moderate level), and involvement (highest level). You may remember that intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) motivation play a key role in one’s commitment level.

Four Leadership Behaviors



With an understanding of transactional leadership, contingent reward, intrinsic and extrinsic motivators, and contemporary motivation, let’s look at four leadership behaviors that allow supervisors to establish a constructive transaction with followers.

Four Leadership Behaviors



1. Setting Goals For and With Followers.


2. Suggest Pathways to Meet Performance Expectations.


3. Actively Monitor Followers’ Progress and Provide Supportive Feedback


4. Provide Rewards when Goals are Attained



Setting Goals For and With Followers.

Setting goals directs your followers’ attention to what needs to be achieved. Goals motivate followers by increasing their persistence and persuades them to strategize ways to best achieve the objective or develop action plans to meet their target

Suggest Pathways to Meet Performance Expectations.

Aside from setting goals, followers often need ideas on how to attain these goals. Here the leader can assist by clarifying expectations and suggesting ways to accomplish the task(s). By offering ways to achieve their goals and providing the necessary resources to do so, leaders are able to provide a well-defined pathway allowing followers to reach desired performance expectations.

Actively Monitor Followers’ Progress and Provide Supportive Feedback.

Like parenting, leaders must proactively monitor each follower’s progress and provide resources that empower them physically, psychologically, and intellectually. Supporting your followers is imperative to their success.

Provide Rewards when Goals are Attained

One’s successes need to be rewarded which become “stepping stones” to a stronger self-image and greater achievements. Providing extrinsic rewards and recognition for meeting performance expectations and achieving goals is the hallmark of contingent reward leadership

Transformational Leadership

Do you have, or have had, a transformational leader in your life? One who helped you recognize the greatness that grows within you? Who has encouraged you to become who you are today? Who was it that transformed you into your best possible self?

Transformational Leadership

The extent to which a leader is considered transformational is based on his or her ability to influence and “transform” others. The followers of transformational leaders exhibit greater trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect toward the leader and are willing to work harder for them. This occurs because the transformational leader offers followers a vision and inspires them to complete their mission. Transformational leadership is the most active and effective form or leadership where leaders promote positive and meaningful changes in people, teams, organizations, nations, and even societies, motivating their followers and developing them with individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence.

Transformational Leadership



Individualized Consideration (Caring)

A transformational leader’s ultimate aim is to develop followers into leaders themselves. Individualized Consideration is where leaders treat others as individuals with different needs, abilities, and aspirations and not just a part of a group of subordinates.64 Transformational leaders act as mentors or coaches to followers, listening to their concerns. The leader empathizes and supports each follower and keeps channels of communication open.

Transformational Leadership



Intellectual Stimulation (Thinking)

This is the degree a leader values their subordinates’ rationality and intellect, seeking different perspectives and considering opposing points of view. Transformational leaders consider learning a value and unexpected situations as opportunities to learn and grow by stimulating and encouraging creativity in their followers.
They advocate rational thinking and use systematic analysis as a means to creatively solve problems and innovation. They are not afraid to takes risks and solicit ideas from their followers. This nurtures and develops subordinates and encourages independent thinking.

Transformational Leadership



Inspirational Motivation (Charming)



This leader behavior involves developing and articulating visions that paint an optimistic and enthusiastic picture of the future that is appealing and inspiring to followers. The status quo is unacceptable to transformational leaders who present their vision as the “must achieve future. These visions elevate performance expectations and inspire followers to put forth extra effort to achieve the leader’s vision. Followers need to have a strong sense of purpose. It is this purpose that provides the energy that drives a person, team, and/or organization forward. The leader must possess expert communication skills that enable the leader to present the vision in an understandable, precise, powerful, and engaging manner.

Transformational Leadership



Idealized Influence (Influencing)

Otherwise known as charisma, transformational leaders often display high levels of moral behavior, virtues, and character strengths, as well as a strong work ethic. They also represent the organizational values, beliefs, purpose in words and actions and champion trusting one another. Transformational leaders also set aside their self-interests for the good of the group.

Progress Check



Trait Theory

States one’s leadership effectiveness is based on their intelligence, self-confidence, and integrity.



Trait Threory

Psychodynamic Theory

This argues that followers and leaders are drawn to their roles, and achieve success in those roles by virtue of personality types.

Skills Theory

Focuses on leaders who are emotionally intelligent and can solve problems successfully.

Style Theory

This concentrates on two types of leadership: task- or production and people- or relationship-oriented leadership

Situational Leadership Theory

Identifies four styles a leader uses that are based on the subordinate’s development level and the situation (task) at hand.

Contingency Theory

States that leaders are moved into and out of various situations based on the leader-follower relationship, the leader’s position power, and the task structure.

Path-Goal Theory

This theory views leaders as trailblazers, creating conditions for subordinate success.

Leadership-Member Exchange Theory

It emphasized that leaders must develop specialized, individual relationships with their followers.

Authentic Leadership Theory

States effective leaders are true to themselves and others and adhere to strong morals and values.

Full Range Leadership Development

Leadership training system that suggests leaders perform throughout a gamut of active and passive leadership behaviors.

Laissez-Faire

Leaders who are usually absent from their duties, considered lazy, and have poor relationships with their subordinates.

Management by Exception-Passive

Behavior where leaders hold followers accountable when standards are not met or when things go wrong

Management by Exception-Active

Followers appreciate this behavior as it reduces uncertainties regarding their purpose

Transactional Leadership

Leadership behavior where a reward is provided for positive behavior

Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Theory

Theory that considers a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior

McClelland’s Needs Theory

Theory that identifies three essential requirements a person must satisfy to be motivated.

Transformational Leadership

This is the most active and effective form or leadership behavior



Where leaders promote positive and meaningful changes in followers by acting as a coach and a mentor

Intrinsic Motivation

Refers to results (work, family, education, etc.) to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in)

Extrinsic Motivation

Refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome..

Transformational Leadership

This is the most active and effective form or leadership behavior



Where leaders promote positive and meaningful changes in followers by acting as a coach and a mentor

Right to Lead Model

When was the last time you thought deeply about your own leadership; the process, the product, the results, and the connection that you have with other people? Have you ever asked yourself the question, "What gives me the right to lead?" Although straight-forward on the surface, discerning a meaningful answer is not as easy as it might appear. Your time at the Air War College provides an excellent opportunity to think critically about your own leadership. Great leaders never stop learning; reflection and self-awareness support continued growth and maturity, not only as a leader, but also as a person.

Right to Lead Model

The purpose of this primer is to provide a structured approach to the process of self-reflection and, ultimately, self-assessment. Furthermore, using a systematic method to think about your own leadership heightens self-awareness; self-aware leaders are better leaders.

The Right to Lead Assessment Model (RLAM),

RLAM is one way of taking stock of your own leadership and it is a useful framework to consider leadership in general. The model is read bottom to top. The elements of competence and personality tend to be interactive and might be emphasized to meet specific challenges.

For instance, personality might take on greater importance if morale is low, or you replace a toxic leader.



Competence might be emphasized to a greater degree if the unit is not trained to standard.



Character is usually constant, but not always. Leaders can and do act out of character.

As you study the RLAM, take time to reflect upon all elements in the model. Remember, no one is questioning your right to lead; the goal is to help you become more self- aware.

As you study the RLAM, take time to reflect upon all elements in the model. Remember, no one is questioning your right to lead; the goal is to help you become more self- aware.

The following paragraphs provide a detailed discussion of each component in the model:



Authority: What you are allowed to do

Your authority flows from the constitution, the congress, and powers vested in you by the President, as Commander-in-Chief. These powers allow you to accomplish specific missions, and to maintain good order and discipline. Constitutional and legislative authorities, such as Title 10 of the US Code, codify in greater detail what you are allowed to do, as well as, what you are prohibited or restricted from doing. Moreover, the lineage of your authority is as old as the republic itself.

Authority: What you are allowed to do

Authority, based on rank, position, and duty is ever present, the trick is to understand the limits of your authority and to never abuse the authorities vested in you by our nation and your superiors. Keep in mind, the most powerful authority a leader can possess is granted by those being led--trust.

Obligations and Requirements: What you must do

Leaders incur obligations and assume responsibility for requirements through a variety of means. Although easily conflated, requirements and obligations are not necessarily the same thing.

Obligations and Requirements: What you must do

Military leaders first incur a personal obligation by taking the oath of office or enlistment. Furthermore, officers also accept the terms of a commission. Whereas leaders accept obligations knowingly and freely, most requirements are imposed upon leaders. Regulations, operating instructions, policies, orders, and position descriptions define many, if not most, activities that leaders must accomplish.

Obligations and Requirements: What you must do

Obligations and requirements are related, sometimes even overlapping; they are, however, not the same thing. Leaders obligate themselves to a higher purpose for the privilege of leading others; whereas, requirements are imposed, varied, sometimes onerous, often routine, but never optional.

Competence: What you are capable of doing

At first glance, the topic of a leader's competence seems straight forward. Upon deeper examination, however, it is not easy to state with certitude exactly what comprises competence. People tend to have their own ideas and perspective as to what competence is and what it looks like. To add to the challenge, the words "competence" and "competency" are often used interchangeably--is there a difference?

Competence: What you are capable of doing

Think of "competence" as the actual state (level) of skills and abilities you possess; whereas, "competency" includes the specific skills and abilities required by a particular job or position.65 In other words, competence is the current state of your ability, what you are able to do; competency is what is demanded of you by a position, duty, or situation. When what is required (competency) is greater than your present abilities or skills (competence) you must either develop the required skills or risk failure. It is not necessarily a bad thing to be in a position where the skill required is greater than your current abilities; this is the very essence of being "stretched" as a leader in order to grow and develop.

Character: What you will do?

The topic (and sometimes the issue) of character is significant to the discussion of what gives you the right to lead. There are many definitions of character; some have a psychological feature to them, others lean more heavily on moral or legal considerations. One can think of character as a balance sheet, one that takes into account the positive and negative aspects of who you are as a person, and a leader.

Character: What you will do?

Since everyone has character, the balance sheet analogy is useful; people either possess positive (good) or negative (poor) overall character.

Character: What you will do?

One definition that I keep coming back to, however, is one from the United States Air Force Academy as stated in a 1996 (summer) article in Airpower Journal by Major Brian Hall and Colonel David Wagie; these authors define character as:
“…the sum of those qualities of moral excellence that stimulates a person [leader] to do the right thing, which is manifested through right and proper actions despite internal or external pressures to the contrary”
Character, to a large extent, is determined by the decisions, choices you make, and action you take. Maintaining strong character takes work, commitment and, sometimes, even sacrifice.

Personality: How you do what you do

Your personality is developed and defined by your DNA, environment, and experiences. Personality is a leader’s delivery system; personality is the filter through which all talent, qualities, and skills must pass in order to be delivered. Regardless of your competence or character, you will not achieve your full potential as a leader if people do not want to be around you.

Personality for the purpose of this primer can also be thought of as emotional maturity
or emotional intelligence. Daniel Goleman, who pioneered the term “emotional maturity,”
attributed four competencies66 (Goleman’s term) to a balanced and mature personality:

• Self-awareness: the extent to which a leader has a realistic understanding of their own being.
• Self-management: the ability to control one’s emotions and actions.


• Social-Awareness: the level at which a leader understands the value of relationships and other people.
• Relationship-management: the ability to establish a meaningful connection and bond to others.67

Personality: How you do what you do

A leader’s personality goes a long way in determining a personal milieu68, (the physical and emotional space surrounding the leader). A toxic personality, or more appropriately, a poor delivery system, supersedes competence, character, and other positive qualities; therefore, negatively affecting how the leader is perceived and often reducing the leader’s overall effectiveness. You can’t lead if you can’t connect.

Relevance: The difference that you make

Relevance resides at the apex of the RLAM. A leader’s relevance is directly proportional to the cumulative effect of all the other elements in the model: authority, obligations and requirements, competence, character, and personality. Relevance is both an outcome and an act, the act of being relevant.

Relevance occurs when all the elements of the RLAM are brought to bear in a manner that is appropriate to the organization, environment, and people. The paragraphs below relate how the concept of relevance applies to each of these areas:

Organizational-relevance



Environmental-relevance



People-relevance

Organizational-relevance

Every unit, business, or organization takes on a personality, temperament, and culture. A leader is relevant when he or she understands the organization, meets the needs of the organization or, when required, intentionally changes the organization's culture. Some leaders, unfortunately, are overly rigid in their approach, thinking that the organization must adapt to their needs, when in fact, give-and-take is usually the best approach. If a leader is not able to fit within the culture of the organization, or does not meet the needs of the organization, that leader may become irrelevant.

Environmental relevance

Environmental relevance is more encompassing than organizational relevance; senior leaders’ have areas of interest that are typically much larger than just the organization to which they belong. To be relevant a leader must possess the ability to build bridges, represent their organization, and operate within the interest of adjacent, higher, and lower organizations.

People-relevance

Good leaders make a positive difference in the lives of followers. To be relevant, a senior leader must care for, encourage, coach, guide, develop, and mentor both followers and other leaders.

Trust: The strength of the bond between you and those you lead

The author Stephen M. R. Covey argues that we lead at the Speed of Trust.69 The element of trust is indicated as an arrow, or spectrum, on the right side of the RLAM. The idea, concept, or element of trust is unique in that it is: essential for leadership to exist, it is hard to measure, it takes time to establish, and is extremely fragile. Trust is both a byproduct of leadership and an enabler for leadership.

The three levels of trust reflected in the RLAM are

respect


confidence


commitment

respect


Respect: Your rank, position and experience provide the basis for respect



Hopefully, over time respect is given because of who you are, and not just rendered solely due to the rank that you wear.


confidence


Your followers will listen to what you say, but more importantly, they will watch what you do. What you do, the decisions that you make, how you interact with people, and your demonstrated level of competence, when properly executed, will instill confidence in those you lead


commitment

If you make a positive impact difference in the lives of your people and on your organization, then people will commit to you and your efforts. They will “buy-into” your vision. People will commit to a leader who is relevant.

Progress Check


Your __________ flows from the constitution, the congress, and powers vested in you by the President, as Commander-in-Chief.

Your authority flows from the constitution, the congress, and powers vested in you by the President, as Commander-in-Chief.

________ obligate themselves to a higher purpose for the privilege of leading others; whereas, ____________requirements are imposed, varied, sometimes onerous, often routine, but never optional.

Leaders obligate themselves to a higher purpose for the privilege of leading others; whereas, requirements are imposed, varied, sometimes onerous, often routine, but never optional.

____________ is the current state of your ability, what you are able to do; competency is what is demanded of you by a position, duty, or situation.

Competence is the current state of your ability, what you are able to do; competency is what is demanded of you by a position, duty, or situation.

_____________ to a large extent, is determined by the decisions, choices you make, and action you take.

Character, to a large extent, is determined by the decisions, choices you make, and action you take.

_____________ is a leader’s delivery system; personality is the filter through which all talent, qualities, and skills must pass in order to be delivered.

Personality is a leader’s delivery system; it is the filter through which all talent, qualities, and skills must pass in order to be delivered.

______________ occurs when all the elements of the RLAM are brought to bear in a manner that is appropriate to the organization, environment, and people.

Relevance occurs when all the elements of the RLAM are brought to bear in a manner that is appropriate to the organization, environment, and people.

_______ is both a byproduct of leadership and an enabler for leadership

Trust is both a byproduct of leadership and an enabler for leadership.

Formative Exercise


MSgt Miller says, “TSgt Stevenson, I know you have a strong work ethic and you tend to set aside your self-interests for the good of the group; however, how do you get your team to perform at such high levels so consistently?” Stevenson replies, “I always provide them with a clear direction and emphasize that what they are doing is important to the unit and the mission. I listen to their concerns and I seek and value their input.” Miller says, “Now I know why they work so hard and always speak highly of you.”



This scenario BEST illustrates _______ and its impact on NCO effectiveness.

a. Management by Exception – Active
b. Transactional Leadership
c. Transformational Leadership

Formative Exercise



a. Management by Exception – Active


a. This answer is incorrect. There is no evidence of Management by Exception – Active (MBE-A) in the scenario. According to the Full Range Leadership Development chapter, this leadership behavior keeps people and processes in control, monitoring and controlling followers through forced compliance with rules, regulations, and expectations for meeting performance standards and behavioral norms. MBE-A exists in structured system with detailed instructions, careful observation, and active supervision. See rationale for correct response for additional information.

Formative Exercise



b. Transactional Leadership

b. This answer is incorrect. There is no evidence of Transactional Leadership in the scenario. According to the Full Range Leadership Development chapter, involve the constructive transaction between the leader and the follower. These transactions formulate a sort of “contract” where the leader sets goals, identifies ways for the subordinate to reach these goals, and supports the follower in meeting these expectations. The follower is required to perform assigned tasks to a specified performance level. When the follower fulfills the leader’s expectations, a reward is provided to reinforce the demonstrated positive behavior. See rationale for correct response for additional information.

Formative Exercise



c. Transformational Leadership


c. This answer is CORRECT. According to the Full Range Leadership Development chapter, the followers of transformational leaders exhibit greater trust, admiration, loyalty, and respect toward the leader and are willing to work harder for them. This occurs because the transformational leader offers followers a vision (clear direction) and inspires them to complete their mission. Transformational leadership motivate their followers and developing them with individual consideration (listen to their concerns), intellectual stimulation (seek and value their input), inspirational motivation (clear direction and emphasize that what they are doing is important to the unit and the mission), and idealized influence (strong work ethic and you set aside your self-interests for the good of the group).

Formative Exercise


TSgt Huff, the academy’s newest instructor, meets with MSgt Perry to begin training. Perry says, “Sergeant Huff, I have prepared an intensive training process that requires you to teach at least 19 lessons during your first class and all 30 lessons during the following class.” After Huff instructs each lesson, Perry discusses Huff’s performance and provides advice. At the graduation, Perry says to Huff, “Congratulations on achieving your goal! For all your hard work, I plan to submit you for Instructor of the Quarter. In the meantime, prepare to teach those remaining lessons.”



MSgt Perry’s use of _________, will MOST likely ________ SSgt Huff’s effectiveness.

a. Transformational Leadership; enhance
b. Transformational Leadership; hinder
c. Transactional Leadership; enhance
d. Transactional Leadership; hinder

Formative Exercise



c. Transactional Leadership; enhance

c. This answer is CORRECT. MSgt Perry used Transactional Leadership (with contingent rewards) which, according to the Full Range Leadership Development chapter, involves the constructive transaction between the leader and the follower. These transactions formulate a sort of “contract” where the leader sets goals, identifies ways for the subordinate to reach these goals, and supports the follower in meeting these expectations. The follower is required to perform assigned tasks to a specified performance level. When the follower fulfills the leader’s expectations, a reward is provided to reinforce the demonstrated positive behavior which will enhance his effectiveness.

Formative Exercise



a. Transformational Leadership; enhance

a. This answer is incorrect. There is no evidence of MSgt Perry using Transformational Leadership, which according to the Full Range Leadership Development chapter is the most active and effective form or leadership where leaders promote positive and meaningful changes in people, teams, organizations, nations, and even societies, motivating their followers and developing them with individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. See rationale for correct response for additional information.

Formative Exercise



b. Transformational Leadership; hinder



b. This answer is incorrect. There is no evidence of MSgt Perry using Transformational Leadership. See rationale for ‘a’ and correct response for additional information.

Formative Exercise



d. Transactional Leadership; hinder

d. This answer is incorrect. MSgt Perry used Transactional Leadership (with contingent rewards) correctly and will most likely enhance Huff’s effectiveness (not hinder). See rationale for correct response for additional information.

Chapter Seven: Full Range Leadership Development



Summarize and Reflect

This chapter began by examining the evolution of leadership study and the many theories developed to answer the million-dollar question: What is leadership?

Chapter Seven: Full Range Leadership Development



Summarize and Reflect

The reading continued with a study of several motivational concepts and theories that able us to motivate others.

Chapter Seven: Full Range Leadership Development



Summarize and Reflect

All this led to the creation of Full Range Leadership Development (FRLD) and why it is so important for today’s leaders to operate from a full range of leadership styles instead of just one and the four components that make up FRLD.

Chapter Seven: Full Range Leadership Development



Summarize and Reflect

The RLAM provided a framework to help you answer the question “what gives me the right to lead?” Self-assessment, however, is only useful is it leads to self- improvement. Please remember that your right to lead must be re-earned daily, one person at a time.

Chapter Seven: Full Range Leadership Development



Summarize and Reflect

As noncommissioned officers and enlisted leaders, we are responsible for providing our Airmen the leadership and encouragement they need to successfully meet and complete the mission. Full Range Leadership Development is the latest in leadership theory that explains various active and passive leader behaviors that, depending on the leader, follower, and situation; can help change, or transform, each Airman into becoming their best possible self.