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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where on the PV loop do you measure EDV?
lower right corner
Where on the PV loop do you measure ESV?
lower left corner
Where on the PV loop do you measure peak systolic LVP?
highest point of systolic curve
Where do you calculate EDP?
lower right corner
How do you calculate SV?
How do you calculate EF?
How do you calculate diastolic compliance?
Dc = Vd/Pd = EDV/EDP = [ml/mmHg]
What's going on with Patient Z?
reduced preload

so, clinically, something that would lower the blood volume or how much blood is being returned to the heart:
tilt table
pt on diruetic
excessive venous expansion
What's up with pt X?
high afterload because SV decreases even though pressure increases
increased arteriole pressure so a vasoconstrictor, stenosis of aortic valve
What's going on with this pt?
check it:
preload is reduced because of low EDV, but since EDP is also reduced, it doesn't make since for there to be a hypovolemia

EDP is increased, so there is something causing the preload to go down, but the pressure to go up.

think about external pressure like CHF and fluid around the heart and lungs or hypertropthy here.
What is normal EDP?
1 - 8 mmHg... ish
What's going on here?
increased preload
decreased contractility
decreased afterload

reduced SV
reduced EF

classic figure for CHF
What's going on here?
increased preload
decreased contractility
decreased afterload

reduced SV
reduced EF

classic figure for CHF
What's up here?
120/80 aortic pressure is normal
relative aortic pressure is normal
relative ventricular pressure is normal
left atrial pressure increases drastically during systole... this is not normal

cause: mitral valve incompetence: regurgitation

as the V contracts, it squirts blood back into the A and causes a jump in pressure.
What's going on here?
relative aortic/LV pressures are good
absolute pressures are not good. highly reduced LV and aortic pressure in general
constantly elevated left atrial pressure with an appropriate response to systole.

so it's not mitral regurg because of the normal left atrial response.

but since the atrium is constantly elevated and the ventricle never gets to normal pressure, it seems like blood is having a hard time getting from the atrium to the ventricle. snapple.

mitral valve stenosis.
What is tamponade?
Cardiac tamponade also known as pericardial tamponade, is an emergency condition in which fluid accumulates in the pericardium (the sac in which the heart is enclosed). If the fluid significantly elevates the pressure on the heart it will prevent the heart's ventricles from filling properly. This in turn leads to a low stroke volume. The end result is ineffective pumping of blood, shock, and often death.
Check this out.
left atrial good
aorta and LVP is not right

the LVP has to get much much higher to get to aorta, but it's not due to aortic pressure... hmmmmm

aortic valve stenosis
A, B, C, D, E.

A. little change to EDV, big change to ESV - increased contractility
B. SV reduced, EF reduced, EDV increased, ESV increased, somewhat increased preload (due to fluid accumulation most likely) - reduced/failure related contractility
C. reduced preload, reduced SV, reduced EDV, reduced ESV, EF increased - looks like hypovolemia, reduced preload
D. preload normal, SV low, EF low, ESV up - contractility failure w/o compensation
E. high preload, high SV, high EDV - hypervolemia (volume expansion)