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69 Cards in this Set

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Nervous System

Includes ALL neural tissue in body, contains neurons and neuroglia, Organs: brain, spinal cord, and sensory receptors of sense organs, nerves connect nervous system with other systems.


Cells that send and receive signals


glial cells, cells that support and protect neurons

Anatomical Divison of Nervous System

Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System


Consist of spinal cord and brain, contains neural and connective tissues, and blood vessels, process and coordinates sensory data from inside to outside, and motor commands control activities of peripheral organs. Also deals with intelligence, memory, learning, and emotion


Includes all neural tissue outside of CNS, delivers sensory info to CNS, carries motor commands to peripheral tissues and systems


(Peripheral nerves) bundles of axons with connective tissues and blood vessels, carry sensory info and motor commands in PNS. Cranial nerves and Spinal nerves

Cranial and Spinal Nerves

Attach to spinal cord

Divisions of PNS

Afferent and Efferent Division

Afferent division

Carries sensory info from PNS sensory receptors to CNS

Efferent division

Carries motor command from CNS to PNS muscles and glands

Afferent division receptors

Detect changes or respond to stimuli, neurons and specialized cells, complex sensory organs

Afferent division effectors

respond to efferent signals, cells and organs

Efferent divison

Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System

Somatic Nervous System

controls voluntary and involuntary reflexes, skeletal muscle contractions

Autonomic Nervous System

controls subconscious actions, contractions of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, and glandular secretions

Sympathetic Divison

stimulating effect

Parasympathetic Division

relaxing effect


The basic functional unit of nervous system

Neuron Structure

multipolar neuron, common in CNS, cell body (soma), short, branched dendrites, long, single axon

Cell Body

Large nucleus and nucleolus, perikaryon (cytoplasm), mitochondria, RER and ribosomes, cytoskeleton, nissl bodies


nuerofilaments and meurotubules in place of microfilaments and microtubules; neurofibrils: bundles of neurofilaments that provide support for dendrites and axon

Nissl Bodies

Dense areas of RER and ribosomes, make neural tissue appear gray (gray matter)


highly branched

Dendrite spines

many fine processes, receive info from other neurons, 80-90% of neuron surface area


long, carries electrical signal (action potential) to target, structure is critical to function

Structure of Axon

Axoplasm, Axolemma, Axon Hillock, Initial Segment, Collaterals, Telodendria, Axon Terminals


Cytoplasm of axon, contains neurofibrils, neurotubulesm enzymes, organelles


specialized cell membrane, covers the axoplasm

Axon Hillock

thick section of cell body, attached to initial segment

Initial Segment

attaches to axon hillock


branches of a single axon


fine extensions of distal axon

Axon terminals

tips of telodendria


where neuron communicates with another cell

Presynaptic cell

neuron that sends message

Postsynaptic cell

cell that receives message

Synaptic Cleft

small gap that separates presynaptic membrane and postsynaptic membrane

Synaptic terminal

expanded area of axon of presynaptic neuron, contains synaptic vesicles of neurotransmitters


are chemical messengers, released at presynaptic membrane, affect receptors of postsynaptic membrane, broken down by enzymes, reassembled at axon terminal

Axoplasmic transport

Neurotubules within the axon, transport raw materials, between cell body and axon terminal, powered by mitochondria, kinesin, and dynein

Anaxonic neurons

found in brain and sense organs, small, all cell processes look alike

Bipolar neurons

found in special sensory organs (sight, smell, hearing), small, one dendrite, one axon

Unipolar neuron

found in sensory neurons in PNS, also called psuedounipolar neurons, have very long axons, fused dendrites and axon, cell body to one side

Multipolar neuron

common in CNS, include all skeletal muscle motor neurons, very long axons, multiple dendrites, one axon

Sensory Neurons

Afferent neurons of PNS, monitor internal environment (visceral s.n.), monitor effects of external environment (somatic s. n.)

Unipolar, cell bodies grouped in sensory ganglia, processes (afferent fibers) extend from sensory receptors to CNS

Motor neurons

efferent neurons of PNS, carry instructions from CNS to peripheral effectors (via efferent fibers, axons)


association neurons, located in brain, spinal cord, and autonomic ganglia, between sensory and motor neurons, distribution of sensory info, coordination of motor activity, memory, planning, learning

3 types of Sensory Receptors

Interoceptors, Exteroceptors, Proprioceptors


monitor internal systems, internal senses


External senses, distance senses


Monitor position and movement

Efferent Axons

signals fromCNS motor neurons to visceral effectors pass synapses at autonomic ganglia dividing axons into: preganglionic fibers and postganglionic fibers


half the volume of the nervous system

4 types of Neuroglia in CNS

Ependymal cells, Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglia

Ependymal Cells

highly branched processes, contact neuroglia directly, form epithelium called ependymal, line central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of brain, secrete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), have cilia or microvilli that circulate CSF, monitor CSF, contain stem cells for repair


large cell bodies with many processes, maintain blood-brain barrier, create 3-dimensional framework for CNS, repair damaged neural tissue, guide neuron development, control interstitial environment


smaller cell bodies with fewer processes, Myelination: increases speed of action potential, myelin insulates myelinated axons, makes nerves appear white

Nodes and Internodes: internodes- myelinated segment of axon, nodes- gaps between internodes, where axons may branch

White Matter

regions of CNS with many myelinated nerves

Gray Matter

unmyelinated areas of CNS


smallest and least numerous neuroglia with many fine-branched processes, migrate through neural tissue, clean up cellular debris, waste products, and pathogens

3 types of Neuroglia in PNS

Ganglia, Satellite Cells, Schwann Cells


masses of neuron cell bodies, surrounded by neuroglia, found in PNS

Satellite cells

also called amphicytes, surround ganglia, regulate environment around neuron

Schwann Cells

also called neurilemma cells, form myelin sheath around peripheral axons, 1 schwann cell sheaths one segment of axon, many schwann cells sheath entire axon

Neurons Perform:

all communication, info processing, and control functions of nervous system

Neuroglia Preserve:

physical and biochemical structure of neural tissue

Neuroglia is essential to:

survival and function of neurons

Neural Response to Injuries

Wallerian Degeneration: axon distal to injury degenerates; Schwann cells: form path for new growth, wrap new axon in myelin