Urethral Catheters Essay

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Urethral catheters are small tubes inserted through the urethra to drain urine. These devices are often linked with high rates of urinary tract infections (UTI) and are frequently used in the older population. This contributes to lengthier hospital stays leading to increased medical costs. In 2008, the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) included catheterassociated bacteriuria (CAB) as one of the preventable hospital-acquired conditions (HAC) that will affect reimbursement if contracted by a patient in the acute and long-term setting. This paper focuses on three best evidence-based practices and nursing strategies to prevent CABs.
Van Buren is the second largest city in the Fort Smith, Arkansas (AR)-Oklahoma
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In most cases, the
PREVENTING CATHETER-ASSOCIATED 3 indications for catheter insertion were urinary incontinence and staff convenience. Additionally, the catheters were left in place for several days, even weeks.
Studies have shown that the urinary system is the most frequent site for nosocomial infections or HACs. The use of urethral catheters increases the daily risk of CAB for institutionalized patients by 3% to 10%, and the risk increases to 100% within the first 30 days
(Lo, Nicolle, & Classen, 2008). According to Gokula, Hickner, and Smith (2004), urinary tract infections comprise about 40% of all HACs. CABs are also seen in long-term care facilities, where the rate of catheter use is widespread. Approximately 5% to 10% of nursing home residents have indwelling catheters, in most cases for years (Smith, Bennett, & Bradley, 2008).
As mentioned, CABs can have a huge economic impact on healthcare facilities.
Tambyah and Maki (2000) reported that more than 1 million cases of CABs occur each year in acute and long-term care facilities. Results of a study by Tambyah, Knasinski and Maki (2002) showed an extra cost of $589 for diagnostic tests and treatment, and if the CAB leads to a bloodstream infection, the additional costs add up to $2800 (Saint, 2000).
The CMS mandated in 2008, that CABs are a common and potentially preventable condition of hospitalization. Sadly, a study by Saint, Kowalski and Foreman

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