Three Types of Phobias Essay

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Introduction
The term phobia is often related to “ When you genuinely fear something for no rational reason” [1] There are three types of phobias; specific, social and agoraphobia. To develop a fear which is irrational allows room to explain reasons to develop a phobia. Classical conditioning and observation are two methods of developing phobias.
Instructional fear acquisition allows us to work out if things are scary; as humans we may even evolve to fear certain things after some time. The brain regions involved are the insular cortex and the amygdala. [1] The numerous methods in treating phobias could be systematic desensitisation, cognitive behavioural therapy and a last resort being antidepressants. From the article there is still very
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Ivan Pavlov is well known for his theory on classical conditioning; this is a reaction that is learned via the pairing of stimuli with something that really causes pain. In relation to Pavlov’s study it is believed that some fears and phobias develop in the same way as the conditioning process of Pavlov with the dog similarly an individual has been conditioned in the same way to relate driving with being dangerous. Furthermore, operant conditioning a person’s fear of flying or driving could be reinforced if his/her spouse agrees to drive instead of fly, which could then develop, into a phobia.[2]

The amygdala is an almond-shaped structure that is a communication hub between the incoming sensory signals and the parts of the brain that interpret these signals. This part of the brain alerts the body that there is a threat present and triggers a fear of anxiety response, however the hippocampus encodes threatening events in a persons life into memories. The hippocampus converts threatening events into memories; by learning about how the brain creates more treatments for fear and anxiety to become available and thus enhance less anxiety in individuals. [9] [3]

When an individual is anxious this is triggered by senses in the thalamus and sent to the amygdala or cortex. Incoming senses associated with fear in the amygdala whether a threat, real or not are processed to trigger a fear response known as the expressway; this

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