All three theories by Heidegger, Bookchin, and Naess are based on the normative assumption: humans perceived themselves as being distinct from a world that unites both humans and non-humans. To better understand the distinguishments that each author makes in his theory, I will reconstruct each of their assumption. After that, we will explore the rational fashioning of integrative ways and the problems that it raises. In conclusion, there may be a reiteration of the assumption in our effort to act ethically according to the ecosystem.
Heidegger’s theory orbits around the idea that humans are mortal stewards of things on the earth. He believes that humans should consider and respect non-human life forms as part of this comprehensive
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Opposed to the antagonistic point of view, he promotes the idea of symbiosis and criticizes the distinction in which we often place on humans and non-humans. Instead of making distinctions, he suggests that we consider how we can relate and behave in respect to others. Provided that, there are consequences for the kinds of values we choose and how we respond to those values in light of self-realization. (The concept of self-realization will be revisited during the reconstruction of Naess’s theory later on in this paper.) Because Bookchin sees life in an evolutionary perspective, life to him is self relying having a tendency towards increasing differentiation as a form of self-preservation. In addition, our own development does not distinguish us from others’ development for the reason that other elements also involve in the development of other individuals. Therefore, we should be modest and integrate all things into an unrestricted and equal association, as in a society or an organization. This integration is an act of assumption that humans are different from the rest of the world. An instrument of that integration is value. Value is man’s opportunity and responsibility to integrate into the whole biospheric community. He suggests that we (a) select/hold values (ground) by identifying the problems and solutions, (b) choose what counts as a realization of value (content), and (c) respond to elevate it in a situation that calls for