Theories of Erikson, Levinsons, Vaillant, Labouvie-Vief, Sternberg,and Piaget

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Emerging adulthood which is between the ages of eighteen and twenty two, is a phase or rather a transitional period between late adolescence and a full pledged adult. It is a stage that defines independence and life possibilities. This phase has been analysed by theorists. By observing the development that occurs during this stage mentally, physically and emotionally. This essay will discuss three domains cognitive, physical and social emotional and use theories from Erikson, Levinsons, Vaillant, Labouvie-Vief, Sternberg,and Piaget. An interview has been conducted on a person in this age span to collect data and to provide real life examples. For the purpose of this assignment the interviewee will be known as Nigel.
Nigel was born in
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As life becomes more complex young people are more aware of multiple truths which can be described as relativistic thinking. According to Piaget, early adulthood formal-operational thinking is established and carries on till the mid-twenties (Berk, 2013). This stage is about finer tuning and involves improvements, planning and reasoning that is assisted by life events during this stage (Berk, 2013). Perry’s theory known as epistemic cognition, outlined two types of responses on student’s reflections, these were relativistic and dualistic thinking. Relativistic thinking is knowledge placed in a specific structure of thought and has no fact or rationality. Dualistic is a type of thought that divides right and wrong, good and bad. Dualistic thinkers perceive the world in black and white and makes no room for critical thinking. Nigel stated that his teacher’s lecture was always right and believed in everything she said because she held a master’s degree. According to Berk dualistic thinkers approach learning, by accepting what is given to them and believes that knowledge is specific and this specific knowledge is held by teachers. Labouvie-Vief’s theory reflects on Perry’s theory, known as pragmatic thought, it focuses on using logic as a tool to solve real day to day problems (Berk, 2014). Labouvie-Vief also found that during the stage of adolescence and mid adulthood, conflicting positive and negative feelings were

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