The federal court system, unlike the Florida court system, is made up of three levels. At the very top of the tier is the U.S Supreme Court. The U.S Supreme Court is also known as the court of last resort because it is the last stop in the court process. Article III section 1 of the U.S constitution creates the U.S Supreme court and gives congress the authority to create the lower federal courts. Congress has the right to decide how many justices are on the U.S Supreme Court but it cannot change the powers given to it by the U.S constitution. The U.S Supreme Court is the only court specifically created by the U.S constitution and is the most powerful level in the judicial system. The judiciary act of 1789 established the court with one
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This level was created in 1891. The U.S court of appeals reviews cases by the U.S district courts. When someone is found guilty by a trial court they can request an appeal. The appellant must show legal error that affected the outcome of their case. During the appeal each side presents a brief to a panel of three judges. The court reviews the case and does not accept evidence or testimonies the decision is based on the court record alone. The decision of the U.S court of appeals is final unless it is sent back to the U.S district courts. If someone loses an appeal they can petition for a writ of certiorari (also known as a cert petition). A writ of certiorari is a document that someone can file with the U.S Supreme court asking them to review the decision of a lower court case. It includes the people involved in the case, a statement of the case facts, the legal question that needs review, as well as reasoning as to why the court should grant the writ of certiorari. The U.S court of appeals also reviews orders of other agencies if they are unable to resolve a dispute even after the agencies internal review process has been used to the full potential.
The lowest level of the federal court system is the U.S district courts. The U.S district courts were established by congress. Most federal cases begin at this level including criminal and civil cases. Court proceedings are conducted with either a single judge