Essay The Theories of Great Psychologists

490 Words 2 Pages
The Theories of Great Psychologists

Throughout time, there have been many psychologists that have had their own views about different theories. Theories guide and direct our perception of thinking. The similarities and differences are broken down through different forms of development by Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud, Albert Bandura, B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov, Jean Piaget, Uri Bronfenbrenner, and Lev Vygotsky.
Developmental theories differ in whether they propose that development is made up of a series of small, continuos changes or distinct stage like steps. Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget assumed that developmental change occurs in distinct stages. All individuals follow the same sequence or order. Erickson's theory assumes that an
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Vygotsky was interested in how changing historical and cultural contexts within children's activities occur influence their cognitive development. He states that higher mental functions grow out of the social interactions and dialogues that take place between a child and parents, teachers, and other representatives of culture.

Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner were two founders of the behavioral learning approach. Pavlov's experiments with dogs and humans revealed that behavior that had been thought to be entirely instinctual could in fact be shaped or conditioned by learning situations. Skinner is best known for operant conditioning. It is based on a simple concept called reinforcement. This is a process that a particular response will occur again when that response is followed by a certain stimulus. Albert Bandura believes that developmental change occurs largely through observational learning. He views the child as a highly active participant in the social and cognitive learning interactions that are responsible for developmental change.
Sigmund Freud developed the theory that the social self develops primarily in the family, and the infant is gradually forced to control its biological stimulation, warmth, and sleep. He states a child's development is thought to occur in a series of stages. They experience unconscious conflicts that must be resolved to some degree

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