The Differences Between Different Memory Models Essay
Memory is a system, which is a vital to our survival. For psychologists, memory cares processes called:
« Encoding, whereby incoming information is changed into a form that the system can cope with.
« Storage, for a particular length of time in a particular form, in a store with a certain capacity.
« Retrieval, i.e. getting information out of a memory store.
Atkinson + Shifrins idea was theMultistore model.
Atkinson + Shifrin suggest that memory is made up of a series of stores as shown above, the stores differ in their encoding, storage + retrieval characteristics.
Short term sensory store.
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« Peterson and Peterson (1959) gave participants a consonant trigram to remember (e.g. KDL) and then a large number. To prevent rehearsal they counted backwards in threes from the number and then recalled the trigram. Participants were unable to recall the trigram at all after 18-30 seconds indicationg that this is the life span of items in STM.
« Miller (1956) asked participants to listen to strings of numbers or consonants of varying length and recall them in order. The average recall was 7+ 2 items (millers magical number seven). Our STM is, therefore, capable of holding between 5 and 9 items or chunks.
Long term memory.
« Could last indefinitely
« Probably very large capacity
« Information lost for many different reasons, e.g. trace fades nor lack of cues.
Information, which is rehearsed enough, will transfer into LTM. Such
information is encoded in many forms, e.g. LTM contains knowledge, facts, beliefs, pictures, skills, language and musical knowledge. LTM seems to have unlimited capacity and an indefinite life span.
Milner took in brain damaged patients to test their memories, and use them as proof, one such patient was HM, he could remember events for before the surgery (he severed cords