Portland Cement Association (n.d.) stated that in the simplest form, a blend of paste, stone, sand and water is a concrete. Concrete is one of the fundamental building block of the civilization, contributing to all the structures across the world. Concrete can be viewed in details in term of its constituent materials, properties, durability and concrete mix design and quality control.
Constituent materials are the fundamental materials required to produce concrete. The constituent materials of concrete consist of mainly three materials which are cement, aggregate and water, with admixtures included as addictive to alter the characteristics of the concrete (Scalenghe et al., 2011). “Cement is the chemically active constituent but its
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Paulo & Metha (2012) stated that aggregates are classified to heavyweight aggregate which provide a cheap and efficient use of concrete for radiation shielding purpose and for items like submerged pipelines, which required heavy mass being added on it to prevent it from floating, normal aggregate which is used in almost every aspect of concrete production and lightweight aggregate which is applied in reinforced, pre-cast or pre-stressed concrete. According to Bye (1990), water is used not just to react with concrete, but to aid the mixing, placing and compacting process of the fresh concrete as water acts as lubricant. As a rule of thumb, water that is fit for human consumption is fit for concrete production (Dhir & Yap, 1984). The addictive, non-compulsory constituent material, admixture, which is made of chemical substances produced in the chemical plant with variable production cost, is added to the concrete at any stage of the production to alter the characteristics of the concrete (Bye, 1999). The uses of admixture are inclusive of, but not limited to entraining-air, accelerate hardening, retard hardening, reduce water content, repel water, insert colour pigment or act as pore fillers (Bye, 1999). According to Bartos (1992), the properties of concrete varies considerably in the fresh concrete state and hardened concrete state. “Fresh concrete is a mixture of water, cement, aggregate and admixtures” (Dhir & Yap, 1984) and the way of handling