Iran is the first and the only proclaimed Islamic republic in the world. Its constitution dates back to 1979 when a coalition of clerics, students, merchants and intellectuals overthrew the Pahlavian monarchy under a revolution popularly known as the 1979 Revolution (Rehan, 4). The 1979 Revolution also referred to as the Iranian Revolution or the Islamic Revolution, refers to the events that involved the overthrowing of the Pahlavi dynasty under the leadership of Mohammed Shah Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeni. This paper gives a detailed analysis of the history of Iran from the time of the revolution of the 1979 to the modern day Iran.
The Rise of the Shah
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He became involved with the affairs of the government and opposed the prime minister, and as a result established himself as a very important ally of the west (Rehan, 4). For example, in 1976 he disregarded the Islamic tradition by changing the Islamic calendar to imperial calendar when he marked the birth of Cyrus as the first day instead of Prophet Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina.
Nevertheless, in the country Pahlavi advocated reform policies, culminating in the 1963 white revolution, which included eradication of illiteracy, land reforms and the expansion of voting rights to women (Rehan, 5). He also allocated oil revenues to various agencies and projects, and directly supervised the Iran’s security organizations and armed forces. The Effects on the Shah’s Policies on the People Although some of the shah’s policies were of great benefit to the country, most of them especially the white revolution policy received great oppositions. The policies provoked religious leaders and caused civil unrest in the country. The religious leaders were against the policies because of the fear of losing their traditional authority over the shah. The growing uncertainty of the shah’s rule also provoked the intellectuals who were seeking democratic