Biological Positivism has both its strengths and weaknesses, it changed the way of criminological ideas and opened up new theories that were based on scientific facts rather than philosophical ideas like in Classicism. It also highlighted the importance of looking into peoples genetic make-up as research such as Brunners' research into the extra 'Y' chromosome which led to the idea that genetic defects in a family can cause abnormal behaviours and also the Twin and Adoptions studies that showed a correlation between genetics and crime. In more modern approaches, researchers then started to look more into the brain and biochemical factors such as brain dysfunctions and imbalanced chemicals. These explanations showed the huge affect these
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Some people may argue that Lombroso's contributions to Biological Positivism made him the “father of modern criminology” (Newburn, 2007: 122), his theories were based upon scientific evidence with the idea that all criminals had no free-will and that their 'determinism' was driven by their biological influences in which they had no control over. This view was quite different from Jeremy Benthams (1748-1832) old philosophical views of classicist criminology who's ideas were based on people having complete control over their actions.
Lombroso was specifically interested in the 'atavistic criminal', an individual who was seen to have not properly evolved, in his studies he focused on the physical attributes of an individual, also known as the stigmata, of a criminal. The abnormalities in a persons physical appearance, such as a sloped head or exceedingly long arms, was seen as the individual being a “throwback to an earlier stage of the developmental history of the species” (Walklate, 2007: 20) and they were inevitably destined to a life of crime. This technique of pointing out a criminal was seen as a major advancement in getting potential suspects of crime (Shoham et al., 2010) as they could be recognized by their distinctive features.
This research got the attention of American psychologist, William Sheldon (1898-1997) who categorised criminals into three body types, 'Endomorphs' which were typically rounded bodied, 'Mesomorphs' which were athletically built,