Effective teacher’s have the ability to motivate and inspire students to want to actively participate in learning. Motivation energizes, guides, and prolongs behaviour, it gets people going, guides them in a particular direction, and keeps them going (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2010, p. 482). Motivation has been defined as the level of effort an individual is willing to expend toward the achievement of a certain goal. Virtually all children and adolescents are motivated in one way or another. Whilst in the class room it is up to the teacher to accommodate for students differing motivational influences. The teacher’s responsibility is to provide an environment that enhances students’ motivation to pursue academic goals actively
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35). An extrinsically motivated student who dislikes maths may work hard on a math equation because they want the reward of a good grade not because they want to learn. Behaviourist B. F. Skinner proposed that children learn and engage primarily in behaviours that lead to certain consequences which he referred to as reinforces. Basically once a child registers that a particular behaviour gets a desired reaction that child will reinforce this behaviour again to get the reward (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2010, p. 482). Extrinsic motivation is easily to stimulate and often effective within the classroom however extrinsic rewards can decrease intrinsic motivation if children see them as controlling, manipulative or in some other way limiting their independence and sense of self determination (Vansteenhiste, Lens and Deci, as cited in Marsh, 2008, p. 36). In effect extrinsic motivations can change something pleasurable into work. Ideally an effective teacher would centre student’s attention on the internal pleasures involved in tasks and activities. In some cases teachers may need to provide extrinsic reinforcers to encourage learning. One way this can be done without undermining students intrinsic motivation is to praise (reinforce) children not just for completing a task but for doing it well (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2010, p. 502).
Intrinsic motivation is where motivation is free