Principles of Maneuver, Offensive and Surprise Essay

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The Valley Campaign of the Shenandoah Valley of 23 March to 9 June 1862 saw the rise of the Confederate Major General (MG) Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. The Shenandoah Valley campaign allowed for MG Jackson to incorporate the principles of maneuver, offensive and surprise operations (US Army Center of Military History, 2012) through the use of his cavalry and foot soldiers.
FM 100-5 describes the following: Principles of Maneuver are to place the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power. The Principles of Offensive are to seize, retain and exploit the initiative. And the Principles of Surprise are strike the enemy at a time or place for which he is unprepared. It is not essential he be
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Banks who was in charge of the Fifth Corps of the Union. General Banks subordinate commanders were: Major General (MG) John C. Fremont, Major General (MG) Irvin McDowell, Brigadier General (BG) James Shield and Brigadier General (BG) Robert C. Schneck. Each of these General’s commanded either a division or a brigade with many other commanders. The Union Army had total strength of 52,000 personnel to fight in the valley and pursue the Confederate Army across the valley. The Valley District of the Department of Northern Virginia (Confederate) Army was commanded by MG Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson. MG Jackson’s subordinate commanders were: Major General (MG) Richard S. Ewell, Brigadier General (BG) Richard B. Garnett, Brigadier General (BG) Edward “Allegheny” Johnson, Brigadier General (BG) Richard Taylor, Brigadier General (BG) Charles S. Winder and Colonel (Col) Turner Ashby. MG Jackson commanded a total of 18,000 troops (Shenandoah Valley Battlefield Foundation, 2011). In March of 1862, the Union Army was instructed by President Lincoln to advance and to take the Confederate capital of Richmond Virginia. The Union Army was to advance from Fredericksburg through the Shenandoah Valley to take the capital. The Valley Campaign lasted for 45 days, with engagements in or around Kernstown, McDowell, First Winchester, Cross Keys, Front Royal, Strasburg, Luray and Port Republic that tied up the Union Army within

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