Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Shakespeare's Richard the Third

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All the passions of the irascible rise from the passions of the concupiscible appetite and terminate in them. For instance, anger rises from sadness, and, having wrought vengeance, terminates in joy.
-- St. Thomas Aquinas

Richard the Third is an intense exploration of the psychology of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and that exploration is centered on Richard’s mind. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. PTSD is characterized by the following central symptoms; feelings of detachment or estrangement from others, efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that might be associate with
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“And I for comfort have but one false glass that grieves me when I see my shame in him” (page50), even his mother do not love him; where else should he have learnt it? As a result, this isolation leads to Richard's inability to love anyone and the internal war continues to consume his psyche as he withdraws from society to avoid people. In addition, efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that might be associate with the trauma is another symptom of PSDT seen in Richard. His constant pursuit of power had amplified his PTSD because he avoids people by killing them. His detachment from everyone allows him to easily kill his own family members and followers. This is considered by society’s standards to be barbaric thus, he is rejected from society. Although, Richard did not directly kill any of his close relative instead he cleverly uses his charisma to manipulate other people to do his dirty work. Richard often manipulated Buckingham to perform the evil deeds, “Shall I be plain? I wish the bastards dead, and I would have it suddenly performed” (page 97). But if they refuse to carry out Richard’s commend he would just get someone else to do it and at the same execute the rebellion. The use of his charisma allows him to avoid certain activities such as murdering people; which allows him to avoid further exacerbation of his is psychological disorder. In a sense

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