Political History of Modern Egypt Essay

1683 Words 7 Pages
The two-century period of the history of the modern state of Egypt comprise of a series of remarkable events that have shaped both the country’s past and future. Over the course of these two hundred years, Egypt saw its declaration as a Khedievate by the then Wali of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha. Following this, it fell into the British occupation, after its protector, the Ottoman Empire sided with the Central Powers. Under the British, Egypt was proclaimed a sultanate. Yet, its life as a sultanate did not last much, due to the anti-British sentiments among its people. Fearing a mass revlot, the British decided to grant Egypt its independence in 1922, thus proclaiming the Kingdom of Egypt, with Sarwat Pasha as its first Prime Minister. …show more content…
Muhammad Ali Pasha gained authority over Egypt after he defeated the Egyptian Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks with with his Rumeli troops which had been sent to restore the Porte’s authority in Egypt. Upon this vitory, Muhammad Ali Pasha proclaimed himself as the ruler of Egypt. In 1805 the Porte recognized Muhammad Ali as the wali of Egypt. Later, Muhammad Ali proclaimed himself as the Khedive of Egypt, thus proclaiming Egypt a Khedievate. The Khedievate of Egypt was not recognized by the Porte. Muhammad Ali Pasha is considered the founder of modern Egypt because of the fundamental reforms he introduced in the military, the agriculture, economy and culture of Egypt. This project was called Nizam Gedid (New System). In 1808, he began confiscating private lands and declaring them as state properties. He attempted to reorganize his troops on European lines, but this caused a huge rebellion, and the idea was dismissed. He strengthened the Egyptian economy by creating state monopolies over the chief products of the country, setting up factories and digging up new canals. He developed of the cultivation of cotton in the Delta in 1822 and onwards. Furthermore, he promoted education and the study of medicine. Under his influence the port of Alexandria again rose into importance, and the overland transit of goods from Europe to India via Egypt was

Related Documents